In this paper, the fixed final time adaptive optimal regulation of discrete-time linear systems with unknown system dynamics is addressed. First, by transforming the linear systems into the input/output form, the adaptive optimal control design depends only on the measured outputs and past inputs instead of state measurements. Next, due to the time-varying nature of finite-horizon, a novel online adaptive estimator is proposed by utilizing an online approximator to relax the requirement on the system dynamics. An additional error term corresponding to the terminal constraint is defined and minimized overtime. No policy/value iteration is performed by the novel parameter update law which is updated once a sampling interval. The proposed control design yields an online and forward-in-time solution which enjoys great practical advantages. Stability of the system is demonstrated by Lyapunov analysis while simulation results verify the effectiveness of the propose approach
Background: Hereditary ataxia is a group of hereditary diseases that are characterized by chronic progressive uncoordinated gait and are frequently associated with cerebellar atrophy.
Objectives: To investigate evidence-based diagnosis of hereditary ataxia by retrospective analysis of the diagnostic process in one Chinese family.
Methods: Clinical records of 15 ataxia patients from one Chinese family with 46 family members were retrospectively reviewed and a tentative diagnosis was made based on clinical manifestations, signs and symptoms, mode of inheritance, and progression. Since hereditary ataxia is a group of heterogeneous diseases having various subtypes and overlapping symptoms, we adopted a stepwise evaluation to achieve a tentative diagnosis. To confirm the diagnosis, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for the suspected causative gene of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) subtype 3 (SCA3).
Results: Through analysis of hereditary and clinical characteristics of family histories of the patients, we suspected that the family might suffer from SCA, especially, SCA3. The PCR assay for SCA3 showed that, five of the ten samples analyzed had a CAG trinucleotide expansion of the SCA3 gene, and four of the five members developed ataxia. The remaining one, a seven-year-old girl, showed no symptoms or signs except for uvula deviation. No clinical symptoms were found in five other members with negative PCR results. Thus, based on both clinical findings and laboratory results, we further confirmed that the family suffered from SCA3.
Conclusion: Hereditary ataxias are disorders sharing overlapping symptoms. Comprehensive analysis of medical and family records together with genetic diagnosis improves diagnostic efficiency of hereditary ataxia and aides in family counseling.
We present a reliable calibration method using the constraint of 2D projective lines and 3D world points to elaborate the accuracy of the camera calibration. Based on the relationship between the 3D points and the projective plane, the constraint equations of the transformation matrix are generated from the 3D points and 2D projective lines. The transformation matrix is solved by the singular value decomposition. The proposed method is compared with the point-based calibration to verify the measurement validity. The mean values of the root-mean-square errors using the proposed method are 7.69×10−4, 6.98×10−4, 2.29×10−4, and 1.09×10−3 while the ones of the original method are 8.10×10−4, 1.29×10−2, 2.58×10−2, and 8.12×10−3. Moreover, the average logarithmic errors of the calibration method are evaluated and compared with the former method in different Gaussian noises and projective lines. The variances of the average errors using the proposed method are 1.70×10−5, 1.39×10−4, 1.13×10−4, and 4.06×10−4, which indicates the stability and accuracy of the method.
The paramyosin (Pmy) protein has been presented as a potential vaccine candidate against Schistosoma spp. However, it remains elusive whether it works in controlling cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). This study investigated the characteristics of E. granulosus Pmy (EgPmy) using in silico analysis and evaluated its potential as an epitope vaccine. The secondary structure was predicted by SOPMA software and linear B-cell epitopes were screened by the Kolaskar and Tongaonkar’s method on IEBD while conformational B-cell epitopes were predicted by the Ellipro. Additionally, the epitopes of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) were analyzed by the NetCTL-1.2 server. The results showed that α-helices, extended strands, random coils and β-turns accounted for 84.82 %, 6.60 %, 5.56 % and 3.01 % in EgPmy’s secondary structure, respectively. A total of 29 linear B-cell epitopes and 6 conformational epitopes were identified together with 25 CTL epitopes. The CTL epitope 709KLEEAEAFA717 showed a high potential to elicit CTL response. These results suggested that EgPmy has a strong immunogenicity, which could serve as a reference for the development of EgPmy-based epitope vaccine against CE.
Background: Previous study suggests that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can be a potential late inflammatory mediator. However, whether heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) regulate HMGB1 expression via binding to heat shock element (HSE) is not known.
Objective:We investigated the role of HSF1 in the transcriptional regulation of HMGB1 protein.
Methods: A probe that included HMGB1 promoter region containing HSE was synthesized for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to determine the binding of HSF1 and HSE in the promoter region of HMGB1 gene. Mutant mouse HMGB1 promoter was prepared by PCR amplification on a template of wild-type plasmid DNA with site-directed mutant primers. The mutant DNA fragments were also inserted into a corresponding plasmid. In addition, luciferase reporter plasmids of HMGB1 promoter were constructed to transfect RAW264.7 cells. After that, luciferase activity was measured to assay the effects of the HSF1 transfection on the promoter activity.
Results: EMSA result showed a retardation strap after the coculture of biotin labeled HSF1 binding fragment and nuclear protein extracts. The retardation phenomenon could be competed by unlabeled probe and not by unlabeled mutant probe. A super retardation strap was present after adding HSF1 monoclonal antibody. After the HSE core sites was mutated, the relative luciferase activity of the mutant plasmid decreased by 4.26 folds compared with that in the wild-type (23.54±1.68 vs.100.25±3.26, p <0.01). EMSA assay also confirmed that there were HSF1 binding sites HSE (-668bp~-651bp) in the promoter region of HMGB1. The mutation of the core base of HSF1 binding sites decreased the transcriptional activity of HMGB1.
Conclusion: HSF1 can bind to the promoter region HSE (-668bp~-651bp) of HMGB1, which down-regulates the expression of HMGB1.
This paper is focused on the nonlinear state estimation problem with finite-step correlated noises and packet loss. Firstly, by using the projection theorem repeatedly, the mean and covariance of process noise and measurement noise in the condition of measurements before the current epoch are calculated. Then, based on the Gaussian approximation recursive filter (GASF) and the prediction compensation mechanism, one-step predictor and filter with packet dropouts are derived, respectively. Based on these, a nonlinear Gaussian recursive filter is proposed. Subsequently, the numerical implementation is derived based on the cubature Kalman filter (CKF), which is suitable for general nonlinear system and with higher accuracy compared to the algorithm expanded from linear system to nonlinear system through Taylor series expansion. Finally, the strong nonlinearity model is used to show the superiority of the proposed algorithm.
Objective To construct the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+)-C2orf69 and induce the expression of recombinant proteins in vitro. Then the possible effects of recombinant protein on cell proliferation was observed and rabbit-anti-C2orf69 protein polyclonal antibodies was obtained.
Methods Gene fragment of C2orf69 was amplified by PCR and then prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-32a(+)-C2orf69 was constructed. Recombinant protein C2orf69 expression was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The white-ear rabbits were immunized with purified recombinant protein C2orf69, and the potency and specificity of polyclonal antibody were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Also, different liver cells were incubated with recombinant protein C2orf69 in vitro.
Results C2orf69 gene fragment was successfully amplified, results of gene sequencing were consistent with the sequence in GenBank. Recombinant protein of C2orf69 was successfully induced and expressed. The polyclonal antibody titer was up to 1︰1 280 000 through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results of cell proliferation showed that the recombinant protein could inhibit the proliferation of different liver cells.
Conclusions The recombinant protein C2orf69 could inhibit the proliferation of different liver cells, and we speculated that it may be a widely roled inhibitor of hepatocyte proliferation. Our experiment showed that the proliferation inhibition of cells may be realized by G1 phase extending and S phase shortening.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.
Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.
Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.