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Open access

Ewa Forma, Magdalena Bernaciak, Hanna Romanowicz-Makowska and Magdalena Bryś

RT-PCR Analysis of TOPBP1 Gene Expression in Hereditary Breast Cancer

Hereditary predisposition to breast cancer determined in large part by loss of function mutations in one of two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Besides BRCA1 and BRCA2 other genes are also likely to be involved in hereditary predisposition to breast cancer. TopBP1 protein is involved in DNA replication, DNA damage checkpoint response and transcriptional regulation. Expression of TopBP1 gene at the mRNA level was analyzed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 94 samples of hereditary breast cancer. Analysis of TopBP1 mRNA level showed that expression of TopBP1 is significantly downregulated in poorly differentiated breast cancer (grade III according Bloom-Richardson system (P<0.05).

Open access

Hanna Romanowicz, Ewa Czichos, Katarzyna Zych-Krekora, Michał Krekora, Maciej Słodki and Maria Respondek-Liberska



It was retrospective analysis of prenatal echocardiography findings in fetuses with congenital heart defects, who died in our institution and had an autopsy exams in years 2010 - 2015.

Material and methods:

Among total 115 deaths the pulmonary hypertension based on histopathology criteria was present in 83 cases (72%) as a leading cause of their deaths. Out of 83 neonates 40 underwent prenatal echo, 43 did not, however in both groups there were similar types of heart defects.


The prenatal echo findings from study group (n=40), from the last echo before the delivery were compared with control group and group of HLHS who did survive neonatal surgery and were discharged from hospital. There were statistical differences between pulmonary artery/aorta ratio in fetuses in control group and fetuses in study group („pulmonary hypertension” after birth) (p=0,044). There were statistical differences between pre-delivery pulmonary artery/aorta ratio in fetuses in study group (with „pulmonary hypertension” after birth) and in group of fetuses with HLHS, alive & well after first surgery (p=0,027). There were no differences between pulmonary artery/ aorta ratio fetuses in control group and fetuses with HLHS, alive & well after first surgery (p=0,38)


1) Pulmonary hypertension was a frequent cause of neonatal deaths among our series of congenital heart defects

2) Dilatation of pulmonary artery (and increased pulmonary/artery ratio ) in fetal echo just before delivery may be an important risk factor for poor neonatal outcome in congenital heart defects.)

Open access

Maria Respondek-Liberska, Jerzy Węgrzynowski, Przemysław Oszukowski, Ewa Gulczyńska, Elżbieta Nykiel, Lucjusz Jakubowski, Mariusz Grzesiak, Ewa Czichos and Hanna Romanowicz


This is a case report about very rare findings in 2nd half of pregnancy (after normal 1 trimester scan ) at 18th week of gestation fetal macrosomia was detected unrelated to maternal diabetes, and acceleration fetal growth later on with unusual cardiac abnormalities (fetal cardiomegaly, cardiomyopathy, partial abnormal venous connection ). Progressive features of congestive heart failure with polyhydramnios in a fetus with estimated 5500 g predicted a poor outcome and severe neonatal condition, which was presented and discussed with the parents to be. Casearean section was performed at 33rd weeks of gestation due to maternal dyscomfort, severe legs edema and her tachypnoe. Baby boy was delivered with birth weight of 5050g, Apgar 4 with mutiple tumors. Conservative care was introduced and neonated died on the 3rd day. Differential diagnosis was discussed with special attention to Costello syndrome however without proved by genetic make-up from neonatal blood.