The aim of the study was to determine the effect of electromagnetic fields and their shielding on carrot seed quality. Three sectors were separated on the device emitting electromagnetic fields: “E” - sector emitting electromagnetic radiation with the predominance of the electrical component, “EM” - sector emitting electromagnetic radiation without domination of its components and “M” - sector with a predominance of magnetic component. Fields generated by the device were also shielded with ADR TEX screen, based on a nanocomposite in which the electric component of the electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by water dispersed in a dielectric matrix in various ways. The composites exhibit high dielectric absorption and shield electric fields within the frequency range from ~100 mHz to ~100 kHz. Seed germination and vigour were evaluated at 20 °C in darkness. Mycological analysis was performed using a deep-freeze blotter test. Exposure of seeds to radiation with the predominance of the electrical component and electromagnetic radiation without domination of its components combined with shielding of electromagnetic fields with ADR TEX (E+ADR TEX and EM+ADR TEX) increased seed germination energy and germination capacity compared to these treatments without shielding and control. The percentage of abnormal diseased seedlings in treatments with shielding of electromagnetic fields with ADR TEX (E+ADR TEX, EM+ADR TEX and M+ADR TEX) was significantly lower than in the treatments without shielding and in control. None of the treatments affected seed vigour. Generally, exposure of seeds to electromagnetic radiation did not influence the incidence of fungi.
Introduction: : Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is an important medicinal plant. Achenes of milk thistle contain sylimarin, protecting liver cells against toxic compounds.
Objective: The aim of the research was to find an optimum method of evaluation of milk thistle seed germination.
Methods: Ten seed samples were tested. The seeds were germinated: on top of blotter paper, on top of blotter paper after seed disinfection, between pleated blotter paper, in rolled blotter paper and in sand. Germination at the first and final counts, the percentages of abnormal seedlings and dead seeds were determined. The correlation coefficients between seed germination, evaluated with various methods, and seedling emergence were calculated. Moreover, fungi associated with seeds and diseased seedlings were identified.
Results: The lowest percentage of normal seedlings was observed after germination on the top of blotter. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between seedling emergence and seed germination at the final count evaluated in rolled paper, between pleated paper and in sand. The fungi from genera: Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Verticillium were frequently identified on seeds and seedlings.
Conclusions: Infestation with fungi significantly affected milk thistle seed germination and plant emergence. Germination in rolled blotter paper may be recommended for evaluation of milk thistle seed germination, as the most practical and significantly correlated with seedling emergence.
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is one of the most important medicinal plants. The fungi infesting its seeds may negatively influence their germination and health-promoting properties. However, there is no standard method for S. marianum seed health testing. The aim of this study was to find a suitable method for the detection and identification of fungi in/on milk thistle seeds. The following tests were used: deep-freeze blotter test, blotter test with an addition of mannitol, blotter test with an addition of polyethylene glycol, agar test on potato-dextrose agar (PDA), agar test on PDA after seed disinfection, agar test on reduced PDA and an agar test on reduced PDA after seed disinfection. Seeds were incubated for 10 and 14 days. The most prevalent fungi were: Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus nigricans and Verticillium spp. A deep-freeze blotter test followed by a blotter test with an addition of mannitol and a blotter test with an addition of polyethylene glycol performed for 14 days could be recommended for the further study of milk thistle seed health testing, as they favoured the growth of the most important fungi.
Introduction: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is a medicinal plant belonging to Asteraceae family. Extract from milk thistle achenes (termed in practice as seeds) contains sylimarin, which protects liver cells against inorganic and organic toxic compounds. Objective: The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of colour grading on the quality of milk thistle seeds. Methods: Seeds were graded manually by colour according to the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart, issued in Great Britain. In three samples two fractions of seeds were separated: beige and brown, whereas seeds of the fourth sample were graded into three fractions: yellow, beige and brown. The 1000-seed weight and germination of graded and non-graded seeds were evaluated. Infestation of graded seeds with fungi was assessed. Results: Brown seeds had a higher 1000-seed weight than beige or yellow ones. Germination at the final count of beige seeds did not differ as compared to that of brown seeds or was even better. Milk thistle seeds were infested with numerous fungi, however Alternaria alternata and Ulocladium consortiale predominated. Conclusions: Less mature beige seeds can be used as sowing material because their germination at the final count did not differ as compared to that of fully mature brown seeds or was even better. Infestation of these seeds with some of the fungi was lower than brown seeds.