Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection seriously affects human health. Stable and reliable animal models of HBV infection bear significance in studying pathogenesis of this health condition and development of intervention measures. HBV exhibits high specificity for hosts, and chimpanzee is long used as sole animal model of HBV infection. However, use of chimpanzees is strictly constrained because of ethical reasons. Many methods were used to establish small-animal models of HBV infection. Tupaia is the only nonprimate animal that can be infected by HBV. Use of HBV-related duck hepatitis virus and marmot hepatitis virus infection model contributed to evaluation of mechanism of HBV replication and HBV treatment methods. In recent years, development of human–mouse chimeric model provided possibility of using common experimental animals to carry out HBV research. These models feature their own advantages and disadvantages and can be complementary in some ways. This study provides an overview of current and commonly used animal models of HBV infection.
Qiong Yi, Xin Li, Yuan-Fang Li, Hang Yang, Xiao-Yi Zhang, Zhe Ma and Lu Wang
Introduction: The effects of Jin-Ying-Tang (JYT) on Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling transduction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in vitro were examined. Material and Methods: The cytotoxicity of JYT (0.06-62.50 mg/mL) on mouse MECs was determined by MTT assay. The MECs were co-cultured with LPS in the presence or absence of JYT (39.10 μg/mL, 391 μg/mL, 3910 μg/mL). The concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the culture supernatants were detected by ELISA. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and downstream TLR4 signalling molecules such as myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumour necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF-6), inhibitor κB (IκB), and nuclear factor κB inducing kinase (NIK) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: The results showed that the IC50 of JYT on MECs was 12.25 mg/mL and JYT could significantly decrease the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated MECs (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF-6, IκB, and NIK was also significantly decreased when the LPS-stimulated MECs were cocultured at appropriate concentrations of JYT (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Conclusion: These observations indicate a potential mechanism through which JYT attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells by inhibiting the activation of TLR4/MyD88/ TRAF-6/NIK pathway at the mRNA level.