Our study is focused on the natural environment significance and potential for the development of a wider region. A special emphasis is put on the geographical category of small towns, which play an important role in stabilizing the population of the Czech Republic. In this context, a key factor of planning in the rural region is the demarcation of a catchment region and the determination of its potential. Natural environment (primary landscape structure) is a basic determinant of area development at all the levels. This paper aims at the natural environment analyses of the small towns in the South Moravian Region, with emphasis on the development opportunities and limitations. In this study, small towns are considered to be all the residential units holding a town status, with the exception of district towns and the city of Brno. The study is a part of the research project supported in 2011 by the Internal Grant Agency of Mendel University in Brno titled “Small towns - Motors of the South Moravian countryside development”.
During last two decades Czech agriculture has gone through significant changes: the transition of agriculture in the 1990s and the entrance of the Czech Republic into the EU and its commitment to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Both of these changes contributed to the structural and regional differentiation of Czech agriculture and exposed it to competition with the whole of Europe. Furthermore, CAP exposed Czech agriculture to uneven conditions for farmers within the EU. The most significant results of these changes have been a decrease in the agricultural sector output, a reduction in farm animals bred, and shrinkage of arable land. On the other hand, many non-productive and non-agricultural activities in the rural areas are subsidised, which offers farmers new possibilities of development. The aim of this paper is to analyse the structural and spatial change in Czech agriculture between 2000 and 2010 on the basis of Agrocenzus data supplemented by opinions of farmers gained in a series of interviews.
Acetylcholine and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine can aggravate tularemia progress in BALB/c mice
The present experiment was aimed at assessing the application of neostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) pseudo-irreversible inhibitor with poor penetration through the hematoencephalitic barrier, and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The experiment was done to evaluate their ability to modulate an infectious disease: tularemia. Mice infected with Franciselle tularensis and exposed to either ACh or neostigmine had a higher mortality and spleen bacterial burden when compared to infected mice exposed to saline solution only. The activated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway suppressed pathways necessary for tularemia resolution. Administration of AChE inhibitors to the individuals suffering from tularemia is contra-indicatory. Drugs based on AChE inhibition should be restricted when tularemia or disease with a similar pathogenesis is suspected.
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a blister agent with cytotoxic mechanism of action. There is no suitable treatment based on administration of an antidote. In this study, Wistar rats were exposed to SM in doses of 0-40 mg/kg body weight and treated with the compound HI-6. The treatment provided no significant effect on ferric reducing antioxidant power of blood and plasma. However, HI-6 caused an increase in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. This stressogenic response was presumably the cause of the significant elevation of the blood level of both glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione. HI-6 appears to be suitable for enhancing prophylactically oxidative stress protection from small oxidative insult
This paper deals with the institutional and factual readiness of cities and villages in the Czech Republic to use Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI). On the basis of a questionnaire survey carried out in May 2014 among representatives of 69 municipalities around the core cities of Brno, Jihlava, Olomouc and Hradec Králové - Pardubice as well as a comparison of several model agglomerations, it identifies the main problems and proposes solutions to them. The main theme of this paper is to evaluate the formation of partnerships of municipalities and the process of creating integrated strategies for metropolitan areas. The paper also deals with the relationships and functional links between cities and villages and their hinterland, the common development issues and the existing structures of cooperation and communication. In the conclusion possible recommendations are given to improve the ITI functioning in the Czech Republic on the basis of both, the assessment of the situation in the Republic itself and the reflection on developments in other EU countries.
The V4 countries went through a transformation of their entire economies, including the agricultural sector, in the 1990s. Each of these countries approached the transformation of agriculture differently, but later the V4 countries’ approach to agricultural development was unified by the EU's common agricultural policy. The aim of the paper was to compare the development of the production (sown area and hectare yield) of selected most commonly cultivated crops in Slovak and Czech regions (NUTS 3) in the period between 2004 and 2017. The development of production in these two countries was also evaluated against the trends of V4 countries. Based on these analyses, common and specific agriculture development trends in V4 countries were revealed. A chronological average was used to evaluate the average values of the monitored indicators in the period from 2004 to 2017 in Slovak and Czech regions. To express the development of the given indicators between 2004 and 2017, the change index was used and visualised cartographically. Regression analysis was used to show the development trends of agricultural production in the V4 countries. In general, the agricultural sectors in the V4 countries show similar characteristics with similar trends, and the average hectare yield has a modest growing trend. In terms of the structure of the cultivated plants, the size of the cultivated areas, the volume of production and the average hectare yields, there have been considerable changes to crop farming in Slovak and Czech regions. The study showed that the changes in the agrarian sector after the year 2004 conditioned by the entry of Czechia and Slovakia into the European Union were reflected in a decrease in crop production and an increase in regional disparities. From the point of view of the production indicator expressing the hectare yield of crops, Czechia achieves better indicator values than does Slovakia.