Land Use Changes (Recorded in Old Maps) and Delimitation of the Most Stable Areas from the Perspective of Land Use in the Kašperské Hory Region
The paper deals with the development of cultural landscape in the area of study in the Kašperské Hory region, Czech Republic, from the 1730s to the present and documents changes in spatial structure of land use in this period. The aim of the paper is to briefly characterize main phases in land use development and to identify land use changes and their trajectories. The research tries not only to identify spatial changes of land use but also to compare these changes with natural conditions and socio-economic factors. The results show a clear tendency in natural succession, typical for marginal landscapes in the whole of Europe, and to some extent homogenisation of the landscape in the second half of the 20th century. The major trajectories of change concern changes between arable land and permanent grassland. About 20% of the area remains stable from the perspective of land use which is different in comparison to other similar areas in the Czech Republic. Main socio-economic driving factors that influence land use development are population dynamics, changes in agricultural practises and management policies, whereas natural conditions do not play such a significant role.
This article investigates response of vegetation on gravel bars to management measures and floods. The management measures consisted of the partial removal of gravel and vegetation cover, and were applied to six gravel bars on the Ostravice River, Czech Republic. Unexpected floods occu-rred in 2010, with the amplitude of 5- to 50-year repetition. Research of vegetation on the gravel bars consisted of vegetation survey before the management works; the monitoring of vegetation development over the following year and the verification of the relationships of species diversity, successional stages and the biotope conditions with the help of multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis). Vegetation on the gravel bars was at different successional stages, and had higher diversity and vegetation cover before the management measures and floods. The mul-tivariate analysis revealed a shift toward initial successional stages with high demand on moisture, temperature and light after both management measures and floods.
This paper investigates two methods of assessing structural functionality and landscape services, and the potential of their joint application in order to estimate the impact of landscape structure in terms of structural functionality on landscape capacity to provide various services. The methods were tested in three different landscape types of the Czech Republic. The results showed that linking these two methods might help in estimating the impact of landscape structure on some landscape services in landscape types with a prevalent valuable matrix, but are dependent on landscape metrics defining individual functionality groups
The article compares and points out differences in driving forces of four main landscape change processes that shaped post-socialist countries and old democratic countries of Central Europe during the last two centuries. Studying landscape change processes and corresponding driving forces helps in understanding patterns of present landscape and can help among others in better prediction of future landscape change trends. Here, the presented results are based on review of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014. Driving forces affecting these processes were grouped into four categories. Economic forces drove mainly agricultural intensification; agricultural land abandonment and urbanisation and were pronounced especially in the second half of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. Technological driving forces affected agricultural intensification especially in the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century while cultural driving forces had the biggest impact on urbanisation at the beginning of the 21st century. Political driving forces affected agricultural intensification, urbanisation as well as agricultural land abandonment and were pronounced mainly during the second half of the 20th century in the post-socialist countries. Political forces in the form of subsidies drove agricultural extensification at the beginning of the 21st century. The drivers for the agricultural intensification as well as urbanisation seem to be similar for both old democratic and post-socialist countries. In contrast, agricultural land abandonment in the old democratic countries was driven by technological, cultural and economic driving forces while in the post-socialist countries the political driving forces were mainly responsible. Changes in systems for subsidies and changes in the agricultural commodity markets are also responsible for different frequencies and rates of extensification of agriculture between the two groups of countries.
The contribution of Green Infrastructure (GI) in vital areas such as regional development, climate change, agriculture, forestry and environmental protection is already acknowledged and listed as one of the priorities in several key EU policies, and is the basis for the EU Green Infrastructure Strategy. However, the concept is not yet fully integrated into actual planning strategies, in this respect the Czech Republic is no different. A major problem in doing so is a lack of guidelines/ how to identify and map GI using available sources and thus keeping costs down. The existing data sources for land cover or land use often do not fulfil the requirements in terms of thematic coverage, resolution or accuracy. In order to work around such limitations, we analyse the existing land use/land cover data in the Czech Republic from the GI perspective. Furthermore, we propose a GI mapping methodology based on the diagnosis of three mapping approaches at the regional level, grounded on the utilisation and processing of different data sets. We compared GI maps based on European data from CORINE Land Cover Database, Czech national database called Consolidated Layer of Ecosystems (CLE) and combination of Czech national and regional data and manual vectorization. Our results show that CORINE based GI map is suitable for transnational scale but unsuitable for regional scale. The CLE based GI map is good for both national and regional scale but its information on GI in urban areas is lacking. The detailed regional GI map is good for regional and to some degree even for local scale but its creation is time consuming. However, careful combination of existing national and regional data can provide good outcome in creating GI map usable for territorial planning.
The paper assesses the development of land use and a road network from 1836 to 2016 in the Hodonín region (Czech Republic). The aim of the article is to verify relationship between the road construction and land use changes in their vicinity. The intensity of land use change processes between adjacent periods was calculated at various distances from roads. ESRI’s geographic information systems and geostatistics were used. This helped in assessing significance of impact of road vicinity on land use changes. The time interval of periods for comparison varied between 25 and 80 years due to availability of historical sources. In each period about 20% of the region was affected by land use changes. After the roads were built, there was an increase in the intensity of land use changes in their vicinity. It has been proofed that presence of a road can be considered one of the driving forces of long-term land use changes in this region. This so-called technological driving force impacted mainly urbanisation and other anthropogenic processes, agricultural intensification and grassing. Its significance is gradually increasing due to urbanisation, industrialisation, motorization and the rising mobility. Our results from the Hodonín region indicate that urbanisation and other anthropogenic processes have the closest relationship with the distance from major roads.
The long-term development of water bodies is investigated in this article using the cases of two river basins with similar natural conditions: the Kyjovka and Trkmanka River Basins in the Czech Republic. Using old topographic maps, land use development was assessed and the analysis of driving forces of land use changes was carried out. The essential land use changes in these areas are connected with the processes of agricultural intensification and urbanisation. The largest area of water bodies was recorded in both river basins in 1763. In the second half of the 19th century, the disappearance of most water bodies in the two basins was significantly affected by the above-mentioned driving forces. After World War II, some of the water bodies in the Kyjovka River Basin were restored and new ponds were established. In contrast, no significant water bodies were restored in the Trkmanka River Basin.