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Open access

Halina Dąbkowska-Naskręt, Szymon Różański and Agata Bartkowiak


Increasing human activity affects urban ecosystem, including soils. The objective of the study were examine the content of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and manganese in soils of city parks and green areas from Bydgoszcz agglomeration, north Poland, estimate their forms and mobility, characterize distribution within soil profile, and estimate their origin – anthropogenic or natural. Three green areas from the older part of the city were selected for the study. Multistep sequential extraction method was conducted for the separation of seven metal fractions. It is concluded that soil studied were contaminated mainly by zinc and lead. These metals exist mainly in relatively non mobile forms i.e. associated with amorphous and crystalline iron oxides and with soil organic matter. The distribution within soil depth varied due to the elution process and variation of mixed soil material and additives.

Open access

Szymon Różański, Halina Dąbkowska-Naskręt and Hanna Jaworska


With the expansion of urbanization, the increase of pollutants in air, soil and water is observed. The major source of Hg in urban soils is fossil fuel combustion, and these soils become important indicators of contaminants in the soil environment.

The aim of the research was to determine the distribution of mercury in urban soil profiles on the basis of their physicochemical properties and origin.

Analysed soils come from the city centre of Bydgoszcz, from park and square areas intended for recreation. Research was conducted on four soil profiles: Mollic Regosol (Technic), Skeletic Regosol (Technic), Eutric Regosol (Loamic), Eutric Regosol (Endoclayic). Determined in most profiles artefacts were pieces of bricks, concrete, glass, garbage, slag, asphalt, tar, and charcoals in proportion up to 25% of the volume. In soil samples basic soil parameters and the total content of mercury were determined (using atomic absorption spectrometer AMA-254).

Determined parameters and the total mercury content of analysed soils of Bydgoszcz city were typical for urban areas, and the soils were classified as noncontaminated of this metal (total Hg content 0.009-1.114, mean 0.218 In most analysed soils the source of Hg was atmospheric deposition and addition of human-made materials. It was confirmed by significant correlation coefficient -0.415 (p<0.05), calculated between Hg content and percent of course fragments (Ø>2mm), among which artefacts were very common. Profile distribution of mercury was mainly the result of antropopression but also the concentration of Hg in parent material. Spatial differentiation of Hg content between tested soil profiles was related with localisation (vicinity of heavy traffic roads).

Open access

Hanna Jaworska, Halina Dąbkowska-Naskręt and Szymon Różański


The primary source of soils and plants contamination with heavy metals is rapidly growing traffic. One of the places exposed to harmful effect of vehicle exhaust is Leśny Park Kultury and Wypoczynku in Myślęcinek (LPKiW) near Bydgoszcz. Along LPKiW goes a communication road, which may be the source of environment contamination with heavy metals. The main threat for arable areas and forests is lead (Pb), originating from tetraethyl lead, used until recently as an additive in gasoline.

The aim of the conducted research was to determine the influence of traffic on the content of lead in soils and pine trees bark on the area of LPKiW located in the close vicinity of a busy traffic route. The research material was collected along the outlet route to A1 highway in the distance of 50 - 75 m from the edge of the road, from 13 representative research points. The content of lead in the research material was determined using ASA method after the mineralization of samples with microwave technique. In surface horizons of the investigated soils the total contents of Pb ranged from 11.71 to 40.58 mg·kg-1, and in subsurface horizons ranged from 8.61 to 9.41 mg·kg-1. The characteristic feature of the investigated soils is the higher accumulation of Pb in surface horizons, which is associated with its absorption by organic matter and clay minerals. The obtained results and literature data as compared with Pb content in reference samples show the influence of vehicles emissions on the Pb content