Introduction: Bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPIV3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are the cause of respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. With other pathogens, they cause bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in ruminants. The aim of the study was the detection and molecular characterisation of BPIV3 and BRSV from nasal swabs and lung samples of cows in and around the Erzurum region of eastern Turkey. Material and Methods: In total, 155 samples were collected. Of animals used in the study 92 were males and 63 females. The age of the animals was between 9 months and 5 years, mean 1.4 years. Most males were in the fattening period and being raised in open sheds; females were in the lactating period and kept in free stall barns. All samples were tested for the presence of viral genes using RT-PCR. Gene-specific primers in a molecular method (RT-PCR) identified BRSV (fusion gene) and BPIV3 (matrix gene) strains at the genus level. Results: RNA from BRSV and BPIV3 was detected in two (1.29%) and three (1.93%) samples, respectively, one of each of which was sequenced and the sequences were aligned with reference virus strains. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the strains in genotype C/BPIV3 and subgroup III/BRSV. Conclusion: The results indicate that BRSV and BPIV3 contribute to bovine respiratory disease cases in Turkey. This is the first report on their detection and molecular characterisation in ruminants in Turkey.
Introduction. Changes in thyroid hormone level can affect the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to show how the Tpeak -Tend (Tpe) interval, which is a new marker of ventricular arrythmia, is affected in patients who have become euthyroid following Levothyroxine treatment for hypothyroidism, as this has not been examined previously in literature.
Materials and Methods. This, cross-sectional study included a total of 119 females aged 18-45 years, separated into 3 groups as hypothyroid, euthyroid and control groups. For evaluation of the QTc and Tpe intervals, examination on precordial V5 lead was made of all the ECGs taken routinely on presentation of the patients.
Results. The Tpe and QTc intervals of the hypothyroid group were determined to be significantly prolonged compared to those of the euthyroid and control groups (p < 0.001) and the values of the euthyroid and control groups were similar. A positive correlation was determined between TSH levels and Tpe and QTc intervals. Tpe interval AUC = 0.801 (%95 CI: 0.719 – 0.884) was higher than that of QTc AUC = 0.689 (%95 CI: 0.591 – 0.786).
Conclusions. The Tpe duration was evaluated in respect of the risk of arrythmia in hypothyroid patients. In patients who had become euthyroid, the Tpe interval was found to be similar to that of healthy individuals and was more predictive than QTc. In the light of these findings it can be recommended that measurement of the Tpe interval should be preferred to QTc as a marker of the arrythmogenic effect in hypothyroid patients.
The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution and surface structure of the lingual papillary system in four male adult English horses by scanning electron microscopy. The animals were supplied from the Jockey Club of Turkey (TJK). Tissue samples were taken from the dorsal, ventral and lateral surface of the apex, corpus and radix of the tongue. Filiform papillae were distributed mainly on the dorsum, being abundant, very long and with a slim cylindrical form with pointed endings or multi-bifurcated terminations at the apex. These papillae were typically conical in shape with a wider base in the corpus of the lingua and absent on the radix of the lingua. Fungiform papillae were mainly on the lateral surfaces and lobulated forms were also observed. The horses have two large vallate papillae, located on the dorsum close to the caudal part of the tongue. These papillae were surrounded by a prominent gustatory groove. The vallate papillae had many taste pores opening into the papillary groove. The foliate papillae were observed just rostral to the palatoglossal arches. These papillae have many variable sized taste pores which open into the grooves between the papillary leaves. The papillary leaves were covered with concentrically arranged cornified cells of variable appearance. However, there were no lingual papillae on the ventral aspect of the horse’s tongue.
This paper presents a content analytic approach on doctoral dissertations in the field of distance education in Turkish Higher Education context from the years of 1986 through 2014. A total of 61 dissertations were examined to explore keywords, academic discipline, research areas, theoretical/conceptual frameworks, research designs, research models, tests and analyses, data collection tools, participants, variables/research interests, and leading contributor institutions. It is believed that this study can be beneficial to the field of distance education in Turkish context to identify research trends and set a research agenda by exploring dissertations that were published between 1986 and 2014.