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  • Author: Hadi Parsian x
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Introduction. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), so identification of the related risk factors can be helpful. There are controversial data regarding the serum oxidant/antioxidant status, trace elements and homocysteine (Hcy) as effective parameters in this disease, therefore the status of these factors was determined in this study.

Methods. One hundred-twenty elderly persons with cognitive impairment and 120 elderly healthy persons who were differentiated using Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) participated in this study. The patients were divided into mild and moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment group. Serum antioxidant/oxidant, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and Hcy concentrations were measured using routine methods.

Results. Oxidant and antioxidant levels increased and decreased based on the severity of the disease and were higher and lower in patients than in control group, respectively (p<0.001). With adjusting for age, gender and education, significant difference in Hcy levels was not observed. There was no significant difference in trace elements levels among groups.

Conclusions. Results confirmed the association between oxidative damage with increasing the severity of cognitive impairment. These factors may be involved in the etiology of cognitive impairment and AD. Identification of such biomarkers is important to select appropriate treatment goals before the onset of irreversible clinical signs.



In the aging individuals, osteoporosis is a major health problem. Due to the various limitations of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for diagnosis osteoporosis, serum-based biochemical markers have been suggested for the discrimination between the patients and healthy subjects.


To investigate the serum levels of bone turnover markers in elderly osteoporosis patients.


The serum samples from elderly subjects (osteoporosis (n = 28), osteopenia (n = 28), and healthy ones (n = 28) were collected from Amirkola Health and Ageing Project study. Furthermore, serum levels of bone formation and bone resorption markers as well as estrogen and progesterone were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kruskal–Wallis test and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used for statistical analysis using SPSS.


Levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) differed between groups (P = 0.003 and 0.009, respectively). Furthermore, PINP and B-ALP levels had the best area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity for the discrimination between patients with osteoporosis and healthy individuals.


In conditions in which we are not able to assess the bone mineral density by DEXA, analysis of the B-ALP and PINP levels may be a helpful tool.