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M. Kong and H.W. Kim

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to the application of Si oxide coatings. This study deals with the preparation of ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles coating with SiO2 by water glass and hydrolysis reaction. First, the low temperature hydro-reactions were carried out at 30~100°C. Second, Silicon oxide-coated Nano compounds were obtained by the catalyzing synthesis. CeO2 Nano-powders have been successfully synthesized by means of the hydrothermal method, in a low temperature range of 100~200°C. In order to investigate the structure and morphology of the Nano-powders, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed. The XRD results revealed the amorphous nature of silica nanoparticles. To analyze the quantity and properties of the compounds coated with Si oxide, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in conjunction with electron dispersive spectroscopy was used. Finally, it is suggested that the simple growth process is more favorable mechanism than the solution/aggregation process.

Open access

W.J. Kim, H.-H. Nguyen, H.Y. Kim, M.-T. Nguyen, H.S. Park and J.-C. Kim

Abstract

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a type of laminating sintering technique, using CO2 laser with (metal, polymer, and ceramic) powders. In this result, the flake SUS 316L was used to achieve a high porous product, and compare to spherical type. After SLS, the porosity of flake-type sample with 34% was quite higher than that of the spherical-type one that had only 11%. The surface roughness of the flake SLS sample were also investigated in both inner and surface parts. The results show that the deviation of the roughness of the surface part is about 64.40μm, while that of the internal one was about 117.65μm, which presents the containing of high porosity in the uneven surfaces. With the process using spherical powder, the sample was quite dense, however, some initial particles still remained as a result of less energy received at the beneath of the processing layer.

Open access

S.Y. Chang, Y.W. Cheon, Y.H. Yoon, Y.H. Kim, J.Y. Kim, Y.K. Lee and W.H. Lee

Abstract

Characteristics of electro-discharge-sintering of the Ti-37.5at.% Si powder mixture was investigated as a function of the input energy, capacitance, and discharge time without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of Ti5Si3 was obtained only after in less than 129 μsec by the EDS process. During a discharge, the heat is generated to liquefy and alloy the particles, and which enhances the pinch pressure can condensate them without allowing a formation of pores. Three step processes for the self-consolidation mechanism during EDS are proposed; (a) a physical breakdown of oxide film on elemental as-received powder particles, (b) alloying and densifying the consolidation of powder particles by the pinch pressure, and (c) diffusion of impurities into the consolidated surface.

Open access

E.-H. Lee, K.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Maeng and D.-H. Hur

Abstract

After preparing aqueous suspensions from magnetite particles with a poly-acrylic acid, we investigated the effects of several experimental parameters. We characterized the stability of the suspensions using visual inspection, sedimentation, adsorption, and thermal stability of the dispersant. The dispersion stability is affected by the solution pH, the concentrations of magnetite particles, the molecular weight, the concentration of the dispersants, and the temperature. The stability of the suspensions increased as the concentration of the dispersant and the temperature increased. In terms of the molecular weights of the dispersant, the suspensions with dispersant of low-molecular weight (1800) were more stable than those of high-molecular weight (250000) at room temperature. However, at high temperature the suspensions with high-molecular weight showed stability. The adsorption efficiency of the dispersant was very low. The dispersant of high-molecular weight showed a higher thermal integrity than that of low-molecular weight. From this work, we obtained the optimum conditions for stable aqueous suspensions of magnetite particles.

Open access

S.Y. Chang, H.S. Jang, Y.H. Yoon, Y.H. Kim, J.Y. Kim, Y.K. Lee and W.H. Lee

Abstract

Electrical discharges using a capacitance of 450 μF at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kJ input energies were applied in a N2 atmosphere to obtain the mechanical alloyed Ti3Al powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti3Al was obtained as short as 160 μsec by the Electrical discharge. At the same time, the surface has been modified into the form of Ti and Al nitrides due to the diffusion process of nitrogen to the surface. The input energy was found to be the most important parameter to affect the formation of a solid core and surface chemistry of the compact.

Open access

W.H. Lee, Y.H. Yoon, Y.H. Kim, Y.K. Lee, J.Y. Kim and S.Y. Chang

Abstract

A single pulse of 2.0 to 3.5 kJ of input energy from a 450 mF capacitor was applied to a commercially pure Ti rod in a N2 atmosphere. The surface of the Ti rod transformed from TiO2 into titanium nitride in times as short as 159 msec, providing a bimodal morphology of the cross-section. A much higher value of hardness that was observed at the edge of the cross-section was attributed to nitrogen-induced solid-solution hardening that occurred during the electrical discharge process. The activation energy (Ea) for the diffusion process was estimated to be approximately 86.9 kJ/mol. Results show that the electrical discharge process is a possible potential method for the nitriding of Ti; advantages include a short processing time and control of the nitrided layer without dimensional changes.

Open access

K.-W. Kim, K.-S. Oh, H. Lee, B.-S. Kim and T.-J. Chung

Abstract

Two-step sintering route was applied for the densification SiC by promoting the role of liquid phase. The specimen contained 8 vol% of liquid phase composed of Al2O3 and Y2O3. The heating schedule consisted with initial rapid heating to 2000°C and immediate quenching to 1700 or 1750°C. By heating at elevated temperature, even distribution of the liquid phase was intended. The heat treatment at reduced temperature was to suppress the evaporative loss of the liquid and to secure the time for densification. The two-step sintering effectively suppressed loss of mass and coarsening. The resultant SiC was thus dense and was composed of fine grains exhibiting hardness of 2321 kgf/mm2.

Open access

D.-J. Kim, K.M. Kim, J.H. Shin, Y.M. Cheong, E.H. Lee, G.G. Lee, S.W. Kim, H.P. Kim, M.J. Choi, Y.S. Lim and S.S. Hwang

Abstract

Fast water flow facilitates ferrous ion transport leading to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel and the possibility of a large accident through a failure of a secondary pipe in a nuclear power plant. Ion transport is directly linked to oxide properties such as the thickness, chemical composition and porosity. This work deals with a precise observation of the cross section of the corroded specimen focusing on an oxide passivity and its thickness using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and TEM (transmission electron microscope) as well as an apparent weight loss and a surface observation for the specimens corroded using a rotating cylindrical electrode autoclave system in pure water of pH 7 at 150°C having dissolved oxygen below 1 ppb within a flow rate range of 0 to 10 m/s. The Cr content in steel was changed from 0.02 to 2.4 wt%. Increasing the Cr content in the alloy, the FAC rate and oxide thickness decreased. The oxide porosity tends to decrease with the Cr content and immersion time owing to the development of Cr containing oxide. The oxidation behavior is not changed with the immersion time.

Open access

K.W. Chung, C.-J. Kim and H.-S. Yoon

Abstract

The alkaline treatment of NdFeB powders in NaOH solution at various equivalent amounts of NaOH at 100°C was performed. The resultant powders were then leached in 0.5M H2SO4 solution at 25°C for 2 minutes. At 5 equivalents of NaOH, neodymium in NdFeB powders was partially transformed to neodymium hydroxide. The transformation of neodymium to neodymium hydroxide actually occurred at 10 equivalents of NaOH and was facilitated by increasing the equivalent of NaOH from 10 to 30. In addition, iron was partially transformed to magnetite during the alkaline treatment, which was also promoted at a higher equivalent of NaOH. The leaching yield of neodymium from alkaline-treated powders was increased with an increasing equivalent of NaOH up to 10; however, it slightly decreased with the equivalent NaOH of over 10. The leaching yield of iron was inversely proportional to that of rare earth elements. NdFeB powders treated at 10 equivalents of NaOH showed a maximum leaching yield of neodymium and dysprosium of 91.6% and 94.6%, respectively, and the lowest leaching yield of iron of 24.2%, resulting in the highest selective leaching efficiency of 69.4%.

Open access

H.P. Kim, M.J. Choi, S.W. Kim, D.J. Kim, Y.S. Lim and S.S. Hwang

Abstract

Effects of grain boundary morphologies on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Alloy 600 have been studied in 40% NaOH at 315°C using C-ring specimens. The configuration of the grain boundary and the intergranular carbide density were controlled by heat treatment. SCC tests were performed at +150 mV above the corrosion potential. The specimen with a serrated grain boundary showed higher SCC resistance than that with a straight grain boundary. This appears to be caused by the fact that the specimen with the serrated grain boundary has longer SCC path. SCC resistance also increased with intergranular carbide density probably due to enhanced relaxation of stress at intergranular carbide.