P. Makouloutou, P. Mbehang Nguema, S. Fujita, Y. Takenoshita, H. Hasegawa, T. Yanagida and H. Sato
Using a sedimentation method, the prevalence of the nodular worm Oesophagostomum stephanostomum (Nematoda: Strongylida) in western lowland gorillas at Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (MDNP), Gabon, was determined in fecal samples collected between January 2007 and October 2011, along with their coprocultures. Concurrently, possible zoonotic Oesophagostomum infections in villagers living near MDNP were assessed from their fecal samples collected during October and November of 2011. In the gorillas, strongylid (Oesophagostomum and/or hookworm) eggs were found in 47 of 235 fecal samples (20.0 %) and Oesophagostomum larvae were detected in 101 of 229 coprocultures (44.1 %). In the villagers, strongylid eggs were found in 9 of 71 fecal samples (12.7 %), but no Oesophagostomum larvae were detected in coprocultures. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit-1 (cox-1) region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of coprocultured Oesophagostomum larvae were amplified using parasite DNA extracted from 7–25 larvae/sample, cloned into Escherichia coli, and sequenced. Sequenced rDNA contained 353/354-bp long ITS1, 151-bp long 5.8S rDNA, and 227-bp long ITS2. Parts of clones showed variations at 1–3 bases in the ITS1 region at a frequency of 24/68 (35.3 %) and at 1–2 bases in the ITS2 region at a frequency of 7/68 (10.3 %), whereas the 5.8S rDNA was essentially identical. Sequenced cox-1 gene of the parasites, 849 bp in length, showed a higher number of nucleotide variations, mainly at the third nucleotide position of the codon. The majority of clones (27/41 (65.9 %)) had an identical amino acid sequence. These results suggest that at MDNP, Gabon, only a single population of O. stephanostomum with a degree of genetic diversity is prevalent in western lowland gorillas, without zoonotic complication in local inhabitants. The possible genetic variations in the ITS region of rDNA and cox-1gene of mtDNA presented here may be valuable when only a limited amount of material is available for the molecular species diagnosis of O. stephanostomum.
A. M. Sebbenn, D. H. Boshier, M. L. M. Freitas, A. C. S. Zanatto, A. S. Sato, L. C. Ettori and E. Moraes
Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken (Boraginaceae) is a tropical timber tree of great economic value that occurs in Latin America and through most of the Caribbean. Genetic variation in growth, form and survival of eight Central America provenances - five from a dry zone and three from a wet zone - were studied five and 23 years after establishment in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Significant differences between dry and wet zone provenances were detected for diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), stem form and survival and between provenances within these zones for height, d.b.h., volume and survival. Provenances from the dry zone had higher growth rates than those from the wet zone. Genetic correlations among ages for these traits were positive but not significant, while ranking of provenances based on growth and survival changed significantly from five to 23 years of age, indicating that measuring traits at five years of age may not be a good predictor of the same traits at 23 years of age. Genetic correlations on growth traits measured at the same age were large and significant, suggesting substantial gains could be made through indirect trait selection. At 23 years of age the La Fortuna provenance performed best for all traits, while Nueva Guinea performed worst for growth traits and survival and Tres Piedras for stem form. The species’ poor growth compared to that of other tropical tree species at the same experimental site suggests that C. alliodora is not the best silvicultural option for the Luiz Antonio region.