Y. H. Peng, Z. X. Lu, K. Chen, O. Luukkanen, H. Korpelainen and Chun Yang Li
In this study, the genetic diversity of Populus cathayana Rehd was investigated using microsatellite markers. In a total of 150 individuals collected from six natural populations in the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China, a high level of microsatellite polymorphism was detected. At the seven investigated microsatellite loci, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 16, with a mean of 11.3, the observed heterozygosities across populations ranged from 0.408 to 0.986, with a mean of 0.792, and the expected heterozygosities across populations ranged from 0.511 to 0.891, with a mean of 0.802. The proportion of genetic differentiation among populations accounted for 37.3% of the whole genetic diversity. The presence of such a high level of genetic diversity could be attributed to the features of the species and the habitats where the sampled populations occur: The southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is regarded as the natural distribution and variation center of the genus Populus in China. Variation in environmental conditions and selection pressures in different populations, and topographic dispersal barriers could be factors associated with the high level of genetic differentiation found among populations. The populations possessed significant heterozygosity excesses, which may be due to extensive population mixing at the local scale. The cluster analysis showed that the populations are not strictly grouped according to their geographic distances but the habitat characteristics also influence the divergence pattern. In addition, we suggest that population SHY should be regarded as an ecologically divergent species of P. cathayana.
This study devised a pronunciation computer program to examine whether mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) could facilitate college students’ acquisition of English phonemes and word stress. Thirty-eight participants enrolled in the remedial English class offered at the language center of a national technological university in central Taiwan. Before the class, they were asked to read a word list. In the following six weeks, they were taught to distinguish and articulate English phonemes and to predict word stress locations using the designed computer program. They were also instructed to review the learning materials using the smart-phone version of the devised program. After the teaching session, each participant was asked again to read the same word list and fill out an assessment questionnaire. The sound analyses show that their readings of English minimal pairs and word stress placement were more accurate than their performances before the instruction. Their responses to the questionnaire indicate that both the given instruction and the designed computer program were satisfactory. In the open-ended questions, some of them said that they have built up a better understanding of phonemes and word stress, and that they would try to predict polysyllabic word stress when reading English articles. The present findings can be further applied to research on MALL-based English pronunciation acquisition.
3-Oxo-α-ionol ethyl carbonate, a precursor of megastigmatrienones was prepared by reduction of α-ionone to α-ionol, followed by esterification with ethyl chloroformate and then by oxidation with t-butyl chromate. The total yield was about 23%. Infrared (IR) and mass spectra of this compound were determined. Upon smoking, cigarettes to which 0.002% by weight of the titled compound was added had an improved and more harmonious flavor. The smoke was sweeter and had a cleaner after taste. Experimental results suggest that the title compound added to the tobacco pyrolyzes to form megastigmatrienones during smoking.
F. Q. Zhang, B. Xu, H. X. Yang, W. H. Zhang, B. Z. Zhu, Y. X. Wang, H. Q. Liao and Wen Pan
Castanopsis hystrix A.DC. is one of the most important and multipurpose tree species native to China. 157 open-pollinated families collected from 11 provenances in Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian province were used to estimate genetic parameters for height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), ground diameter (GD), and crown width (CW) for each province and combined three provinces at ages from 3 to 9 years. The variance component was small and non-significant among provenances but was highly significant among families within provenances for H, DBH, GD, and CW. Heritability estimates were significant except for a few traits from Fujian’s provenances. Heritability ranged from 0.20 to 0.57 for H, 0.19 to 0.38 for DBH, 0.21 to 0.55 for GD, and 0.09 to 0.39 for CW. Heritability estimates for H and DBH decreased with increased age for each province and combined three provinces. Significantly high genetic correlations were observed for ageage and trait-trait correlations, indicating that genetic performance at one trait was well correlated with another trait. In total, 22 families and 60 individuals were selected for backward and forward selection based on breeding values.
W. Yang, H. Xiu, Y. Xiong, J. Wang, C. Yuan, J. Wei and Z. Zhou
(Na0.52K0.44Li0.04)0.97La0.01Ta0.20Nb0.80O3 (KNLTN-La0.01) lead-free subtransparent ceramics was prepared by a conventional sintering technique. The structure and the optical properties of the ceramics were investigated. The room temperature crystallographic indexing revealed the ABO3 perovskite type, tetragonal phase and P4mm point group in the ceramics. The surface and fractured surface SEM micrographs showed a dense microstructure with few micropores in KNLTN-La0.01 ceramics, which was obviously better than for the pure KNLTN ceramics. The refractive indexes of the films were investigated by an ellipsometer and the results show that the KNLTN-La0.01 subtransparent ceramics reveals significant wavelength dependent dispersion. The refractive index ranges from 2.14 to 2.06 with the wavelength increase from 380 nm to 900 nm. The dispersive behavior was analyzed by three parameters of Cauchy dispersion model and the values of the parameters A, B and C are 2.0610±0.0005, 0.0054±0.0003 and 0.00069±0.00004, respectively.
J. H. Gu, Z. Lu, L. Long, Z. Y. Zhong, C. Y. Yang and J. Hou
Highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) transparent thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), four-point probe and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The effect of growth temperature on the structure and optoelectrical properties of the films was investigated. The results demonstrate that high quality GZO films oriented with their crystallographic c-axis perpendicular to the substrates are obtained. The structure and optoelectrical properties of the films are highly dependent on the growth temperature. It is found that with increasing growth temperature, the average visible transmittance of the deposited films is enhanced and the residual stress in the thin films is obviously relaxed. The GZO films deposited at the growth temperature of 400°C, which have the largest grain size (74.3 nm), the lowest electrical resistivity (1.31×10-3 Ω·cm) and the maximum figure of merit (1.46×1O-2Ω-1), exhibit the best optoelectrical properties. Furthermore, the optical properties of the deposited films were determined by the optical characterization methods and the optical energy-gaps were evaluated by extrapolation method. A blue shift of the optical energy gap is observed with an increase in the growth temperature.
Y. Zeng, W. Ye, L. Yang, Y. Huang, K. Zhao, Z. Zhang, H. Liang and J. Kerns
Studies were conducted to characterize morphological and molecular profiles of two isolates of Paratrichodorus porosus (SZ1 and SZ2) which were recovered from Acacia mangium in Tianxinshan and Gleichenia linearis in Yangmeikeng environmental monitoring sites in Shenzhen, China, respectively. Analysis of morphometric, morphological and molecular characters revealed these two Shenzhen isolates are identical to P. porosus. Measurements of both study isolates lie within the ranges for P. porosus. It is typologically characterized by possessing a clearly swollen body cuticle after fixation, an onchiostyle ventrally curved, 46–58 μm long, a pharyngeal bulb usually with a well developed anterior-dorsal intestinal overlap, a secretoryexcretory pore opening between the nerve ring and anterior end of pharyngeal bulb, 90–110 μm from the anterior end, a reproductive system with didelphic, amphidelphic, without spermathecae, a pore-like vulva in ventral view and occupying 52.0 %–59.5 % of total body length from anterior end, a short and barrel-shaped vagina with small sclerotizations, a pair of ventromedian advulvar body pores located prevulvar and postvulvar, a rounded tail and a subterminal anus in females. The sequence analysis based on partial rDNA 18S gene and 28S D2/D3 expansion segment confirm its identity as P. porosus. This is the first report of P. porosus associated with A. mangium and G. linearis.