In June 2001, the European Commission passed a new Directive for tobacco products, which, in addition to other regulations, obliges the manufacturers and importers of tobacco products in the EU to disclose the ingredients used in their products and also to submit data on the toxicological properties of these ingredients in burnt and unburnt form. The idea of monitoring and regulating additives used for tobacco products is rather old. Almost 200 years ago, C.F. Hareless in Nuremberg [cited in P.J. Schneider: Über die Gifte; Tübingen, 1821] established 12 rules for the correct use of ingredients in manufacturing tobacco products and vinegar. These rules cover almost all aspects for a consumer-friendly, responsible and safe use of additives for tobacco products and could, therefore, have served as an example for the present EU Tobacco Directive. For instance, Hareless states in Rule 4 that the manufacturer submits to the health department the prescriptions of all added ingredients in snuff and smoking tobacco. It was also planned that the responsible authority can perform unannounced “empirical” and “chemical” tests of the finished products (Rules 7 and 8). Although these rules call for strong regulation of ingredients, they do not challenge the use of additives in snuff and smoking tobacco because ingredients may contribute to the quality, acceptability and also the safety of the product. The Directive rightly asks for toxicological data of ingredients in burnt form, in order to be sure that the use of additives does not increase the biological effects of tobacco products. The review of Paschke, Scherer and Heller in this issue of BeiträgezurTabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research has compiled data from published papers on the toxicological effects of ingredients in burnt form. The authors did not intend to evaluate the presented methods and data, therefore, this review is more a reference work rather than a scientific article. It is obvious from the material presented that there is a lack of Standard Methods for testing the toxicological properties of tobacco ingredients in burnt form. The huge number of different approaches presented in this review points to the difficulties in defining suitable methods for this purpose. Despite these limitations, it is justified to state that the data so far available give no evidence that ingredients in use today increase the toxicity of tobacco smoke.
Dr Thomas A. Perfetti and Dr Alan Rodgman wereawarded the CORESTA Prize in 2010. The two scientistswere honored by CORESTA for their lifetime researchwork on tobacco and tobacco smoke, culminating in theexcellent and highly recommendable compendium “TheChemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke”published in 2009. It is an honor for the editors to publish in BeiträgezurTabakforschung International/CONTRIBUTIONS TO TOBACCO RESEARCH the presentation given byDrsPerfetti and Rodgman at the 2010 CORESTAplenary session in Edinburgh.
On the basis of the literature, which is at present still readily surveyable, the results of the research done so far into the occurrence of various components of tobacco smoke in the sidestream smoke have been summarized. The amount of the smoke constituents occurring in the sidestream smoke is compared with that of the mainstream smoke: [XXX] The experimental arrangements used so far to record sidestream smoke are critically discussed. It transpires, for example, from the results of experimental research published so far that, in particular, the quantitative analysis results of sidestream smoke obtained by means of the Neurath chamber can be distorted by the temperature and atmospheric humidity obtaining in the chamber, with a trend towards higher figures, for example, of the nitrosamines. lt is therefore problematic to draw on the sidestream smoke results obtained by means of the Neurath sidestream smoke chamber to estimate the strain on the air of indoor rooms by the sidestream smoke of cigarettes.
Dietrich Hoffmann passed away on April 20, 2011, at his home in Larchmont, New York. He had suffered from Parkinson's disease for more than 20 years. With Dietrich Hoffmann's death the tobacco community lost one of its most prominent scientists, who was familiar with all areas of tobacco research. His work guided and influenced a whole generation of scientists working in the tobacco industry, universities, regulatory agencies, national governments or international organizations, such as the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is an obligation of honor for the authors M. Kunze, H. Klus, and the editors of BeiträgezurTabakforschung International publish a short tribute in memory of Dietrich Hoffmann.
Tobacco additives play an important role in the manufacturing and for the quality of tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and roll-your-own tobaccos. Attention is increasingly given to the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. This review is intended to compile, collate and - to some degree - evaluate the wealth of pertinent scientific information available from the published literature and other special sources. At first, the reasons are set forth for the use of additives in cigarette manufacturing. In response to the growing controversy over the attractiveness and addictiveness of smoking, the clarification of terms and concepts is followed by a detailed discussion of two kinds of substances with particular relevance: Additives like ammonium compounds that are claimed to increase nicotine availability, and additives that are claimed to increase nicotine addictiveness.
The composition and toxicity of mainstream smoke of cigarettes with and without additives are assessed in several respects. The potentials of pyrolysis studies are explored by looking at a number of key studies and some basic considerations regarding in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing are addressed. Five major literature reviews on additives published between 1994 and 2004, and the results of several comprehensive experimental studies covering a large range of additives, released between 2002 and 2012, are dealt with in detail. Single tobacco additives of particular importance (menthol, glycerol, 1,2-propylene glycol, sorbitol, sugars, cocoa, licorice, citric acid, triacetin, and ammonium compounds) are discussed in dedicated chapters, which are generally subdivided into special sections: Use and toxicological assessment; inclusion level in cigarettes, transfer and pyrolysis; attractiveness and addictiveness; effect on cigarette mainstream smoke composition; effect on cigarette mainstream smoke toxicity. Epidemiological findings and data obtained by the biomonitoring of smokers consuming cigarettes with and without additives are compiled and interpreted specifically for American blend cigarettes, Virginia cigarettes, “French” (dark) cigarettes and menthol cigarettes whereby the focus is on the effects of additives on smoking topography and potential health risks.
Opinionated reviews were published in recent years that are compromised by arbitrary selection of sources and unbalanced views. Leaving those unconsidered, the aggregated scientific knowledge shows that tobacco additives have only occasional and limited effects on cigarette mainstream smoke composition, which are almost never reflected in the results of toxicological in vitro assays or in vivo studies. This supports the conclusion that tobacco additives are not likely to increase the known health risks of smoking. There is also no evidence for sustaining claims that certain additives increase nicotine availability or nicotine addictiveness.
Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.
An overview is presented on the different types of smokeless tobaccos consumed around the world. Commercial products differ widely in composition and patterns of use. The smokeless tobaccos of the Western world (Europe and North America) need to be clearly distinguished from those popular in Asia, Africa and South America. The modern smokeless tobaccos used in Europe and North America are reviewed regarding their chemical composition and toxicological properties. Agents of concern found in smokeless tobacco, especially the tobacco specific N-nitrosamines, are dealt with in particular.
The epidemiological evidence is summarized concerning a wide range of health outcomes. Published reviews and studies are presented and interpreted regarding non-neoplastic oral diseases, various forms of cancer, circulatory diseases, several other diseases and pregnancy outcome. While many of the epidemiological studies have weaknesses and data are often inconsistent it is quite obvious that smokeless tobacco use is much less risky for consumers than smoking. In fact, for modern forms of European moist snuff such as Swedish snus, which is subject to strict quality standards, there is evidence for - if any - only very limited serious health risk.
The ongoing public discussion centers around the influence smokeless tobacco may have on smoking rates (initiation or cessation) and the occurrence of tobacco specific diseases - with Sweden being a revealing example. There is an interesting controversy regarding product and marketing regulations for smokeless tobaccos in the European Union.