This article examines the use of the memorialization of Reagan in transatlantic relations – specifically in the commemorations of the Ronald Reagan Centennial Year in 2011 in Central and Eastern Europe. Extrapolating from the case of Hungary, the article argues that because of the contemporary political status of its drivers and its oblique message, the Reagan Centennial’s campaign in Central Europe can be called “shadow” memorial diplomacy, which in 2011 used the former president’s memory to articulate and strengthen a model of U.S. leadership and foreign policy parallel to and ready to replace those of the then Obama administration. This study can serve as an international extension of previous scholarship on the politics of the memory of Ronald Reagan within the United States, as well as a case study of the use of memory in international relations.
During the Late Pelistocene-Holocene transition the fluvial landscape of the Great Hungarian Plain changed considerably as a consequence of tectonic, climatic and geomorphological factors. Geochronology, and especially luminescence dating, is a very important tool in reconstructing these changes. The present study focuses on the Lower-Tisza region and addresses the timing of the development of different floodplain levels. In the meantime the luminescence characteristics of the investigated alluvial sediments were also assessed, with a special emphasis on the comparison of silty fine grain and sandy coarse grain results, as in the given medium and low energy environment fine grain sediments are more abundant, however, based on the literature, coarse grain samples are more reliable in terms of luminescence dating. Measurements were performed on 12 samples originating from the point bars of two large palaeo-meanders, representing different floodplain levels along the river. Results indicate the applicability of both grain size fractions for dating purposes, though fine grain subsamples overestimate in average by 1.5 ka the ages yielded by coarse grain subsamples. Consequently, fine grain samples can be used for outlining only general trends, and results need to be controlled by coarse grain measurements where possible. Based on the ages received, the upper floodplain was actively formed until 13-15 ka, when incision and the development of an intermediate floodplain level started. The meander on the intermediate flood plain level developed then very actively until 9 ka. As indicated by the received age information the intensity of meander formation could be highly affected by climatic and especially vegetation control. However, reconstruction can be refined later by further sampling and the application of the results of the present paper.
The alluvial development of the Great Hungarian Plain has greatly been determined by the subsidence of different areas in the Pannonian Basin. The temporal variation of subsidence rates significantly contributed to the avulsion and shifting of main rivers. This was the case in terms of the Hungarian Lower Danube when occupying its present day N-S directional course. The considerable role of tectonic forcing is also supported by the presence of different floodplain levels. Although, several channel forms are identifiable on these the timing of floodplain development has been reconstructed up till now mostly by the means of geomorphological analysis, and hardly any numerical dates were available. The main aim of this study is to provide the first OSL dates for palaeo-channels located on the high floodplain surface of the Hungarian Lower Danube, and to determine the maximum age of low and high floodplain separation on the Kalocsa Plain. For the analysis two meanders were sampled close to the edge of the step slope between the two levels. According to the results, the development of the investigated palaeo-meanders could be rapid. The formation of the older meander was dated to the Late Atlantic, while the possible separation of the high and low floodplain surfaces could start in the beginning of the Subboreal Phase.
Freshwater carbonates are unique depositions in the centre of the Carpathian Basin, with debated origin and age. Their formation on the sand covered area of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve is mainly related to lakes appearing in low lying interdune areas from time-totime. Carbonate deposition is governed by various processes, but in general it can be traced back to climatic and concomitant surface and subsurface hydrological variations. Therefore marl, limestone and dolomite layers can be a marker of environmental change. To identify the type of environmental change they may indicate absolute or numerical ages are needed. In previous studies this issue has been addressed by the means of radiocarbon dating. In the present study we attempted to bracket the age of freshwater carbonate formation with the help of optically stimulated luminescence dating and compared our results to radiocarbon data from the literature. In general, the luminescence properties of the investigated samples proved to be suitable for determining the age of the bedding and covering sediments. OSL dates confirmed previous interpretations that freshwater carbonate formation in the area could have a peak around 10,5 ka. However, the termination of the deposition could not be unambiguously determined at the present stage of the analysis. The compound geomorphology and sedimentology of the study area call for further investigations.
Reliable OSL dating of fluvial sediments requires an assessment of incomplete bleaching and consequent residual dose in samples. A well-established way of this is determining the equivalent dose of modern samples from similar sedimentary environments as in the case of palaeo-samples. Meanwhile, relatively low, or close to zero doses are also greatly affected by the thermal transfer phenomenon, which can also lead to a palaeodose overestimation. The present study attempts to quantify both factors in coarse and fine grain modern sediments along the Hungarian section of the Danube River, with the aim of determining their significance when dating both young and palaeo-sediments. Investigations were performed at 30 sites along a 417 km long river section with varying morphological and erosive character. The studied samples were deposited during the record flood of 2013, mobilising and relocating a vast amount of sediment in the system. Tests have shown that thermal transfer can be minimized successfully by choosing preheat temperatures below 200°C, however it remains a significant factor when dating young or modern sediments. Based on equivalent dose measurements, coarse grain samples proved to be relatively well bleached, and residual doses showed only a minor spatial variation. Although in terms of fine grain samples residual doses were obviously much higher, results can enhance the reliability of dates retrieved later from fine grain palaeo-samples. In the meantime, the higher spatial variability of fine grain residual doses may also allow the assessment of the erosive character of different river reaches.