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Daina Roze, Gunta Jakobsone, Dace Megre, Inta Belogrudova and Amanda Karlovska

Abstract

We present some results of a six-year (2008-2013) study in two localities of Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich. near Lake Engure. The annual cycle of L. loeselii, an early successional species, may indicate its potential survival in its typical wet habitat with fluctuating levels of water. Flowering of L. loeselii usually begins in the first decade of June and lasts for several weeks. If the initiation of development was delayed, leaves and inflorescence started to grow almost simultaneously. Development of the first fruit began during flowering and continued to August. Ripening of fruit and seeds occurred in September-October, and they were dispersed mostly by melt water of snow in spring, which is very important for populations in sites overgrowing with perennial herbs. The previous season capsules of L. loeselii remained till the middle of the next growing season; a part of the seeds remained in capsules and less than 1% of seeds had viable embryos. This may increase the survival potential of the population. The studies of herbarium records of L. loeselii in the area of Lake Engure showed that the annual cycles of L. loeselii have been similar and that the species has not responded drastically to climate change.

Open access

Inta Belogrudova, Dace Grauda, Lita Lapiņa, Gunta Jakobsone, Daina Roze, Reinis Ornicāns, Oksana Fokina and Isaak Rashal

Abstract

According to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, 75% of endangered species should be preserved in ex situ collections till 2020. The genus Liparis has a lot of recognised taxons, but only one species, Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich., grows in Europe. L. loeselii is a rare and endangered orchid species occurring in Europe. In Latvia L. loeselii is classified as the third category of endangered and protected species. To develop the best conservation strategy, the knowledge concerning the genetic differences of protected plants in a particular area is crucial. For this purpose, the genetic diversity of L. loeselii populations from different Latvian habitats was tested. The inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism method (iPBS) was used for population genetic diversity evolution. In total, 54 accessions from nine habitats were collected and analysed. L. loeselii leaves have a high content of phenols that reduce the quality of extracted DNA. It was found that the percentage of polymorph loci varied among the populations of L. loeselii growing in different habitats; some of the populations were genetically homogeneous. The genetic diversity levels of L. loeselii populations are related with the population age and the growing conditions.