The results of the laboratory research concerning a dependence of flicker vision on voltage fluctuations are presented in the paper. The research was realized on a designed measuring stand, which included an examined light source, a voltage generator with amplitude modulation supplying the light source and a positioning system of the observer with respect to the observed surface. In this research, the following light sources were used: one incandescent lamp and four LED luminaires by different producers. The research results formulate a conclusion concerning the description of the influence of voltage fluctuations on flicker viewing for selected light sources. The research results indicate that LED luminaires are less susceptible to voltage fluctuations than incandescent bulbs and that flicker vision strongly depends on the type of LED source.
Road dust is one of the most toxic substances found in the environment. Numerous reports found in the literature confirm that proper plantations of various plants can protect areas surrounding communication routes. This way, spreading of different pollutants, including heavy metals, is limited. Determination of total and available zinc content in soil of roadside and soil of a parcel directly neighbouring the roadside on which Virginia mallow was cultivated, plantations of which were supposed to fulfil a function of a biological road screen, was the aim of the investigation. Content of zinc in particular parts of Virginia mallow was also determined. Obtained results of the investigation indicate that content of zinc in soil, on which Virginia fanpetals was cultivated, was similar to its content in soil of roadside directly adjacent to the road. In a course of two years of conducting the investigation, no decrease of the element was observed in the soil of both experimental plots. Moreover, the highest content of zinc was noted in leaves, which are the part of the plant most exposed to automotive pollution, lower in roots and the lowest in stems of investigated Virginia mallow plants.
The paper presents results of research on selected physico-chemical parameters of engine oils from farm tractors based on the date of their change assumed by the user. 17 samples of used engine oil from farm tractors of various producers and with a varied exploitation course were analysed. Oils for research were collected during oil change, registering the service life of oil each time. They were obtained from service points that repair farm tractors in the region of Lublin Province. The studies were to verify whether a decision concerning oil change taken by tractor users after specific time of operation of an engine was good. Number of exceedings of the threshold values of parameters of engine oil which are responsible for correct lubrication were the basis for evaluation
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of incremental and continuous exercise on the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), and cortisol (C), as well as to investigate whether increased cardiac dimensions in cyclists were related to changes in these hormones and cardiac biomarkers. The study included 30 elite cyclists divided into two groups, i.e., athletes with left ventricle hypertrophy (a LVH group), and a control group (CG) without LVH. The study protocol included performance of a standard incremental exercise (IncEx) test to measure athletes’ maximum power (Pmax), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and lactate threshold (LAT). The IncEx test results were then used to determine the intensity of the continuous exercise (ConEx) test which was performed after the 1-week washout period. Cyclists with LVH and without LVH did not differ in resting hormone concentrations and cardiac biomarkers levels. There was a significant effect of exercise on serum IGF-1 levels (p < 0.05) in the LVH group and a combined effect of the type of exercise and LVH on IGF-1 (p < 0.05). Cyclists with LVH demonstrated higher post exercise T levels recorded in response to exercise compared to the CG (p < 0.01). Significantly higher serum T levels were observed in response to ConEx compared to IncEx in the LVH group and the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). In the LVH group, a significant positive correlation between the post-exercise T/C ratio and left ventricular mass index was observed (r = 0.98, p < 0.01). There were no effects of heart hypertrophy on cardiac standard biomarkers. Incremental and continuous exercise caused a marked increase in steroid hormone concentrations and moderate strengthening of insulin growth factors effects. Regular incremental exercise seems to induce beneficial cardiac adaptations via significant increases in the concentration of anabolic factors compared to the same training mode yet with constant exercise intensity.
Recently, low carbohydrate diets have become very popular due to their numerous health benefits. Unfortunately, little is known about their chronic effects on the blood lipid profile and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in athletic populations. We compared the results of a four week, well-planned low carbohydrate diet (LCD) followed by seven days of carbohydrate loading (Carbo-L) on fasting lipids - triacylglycerol’s (TAG), LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol (TCh), glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR levels in 11 competitive basketball players. During the experiment, we also measured body mass (BM) and body composition changes: body fat (BF), % of body fat (PBF), and fat free mass (FFM). Both diet procedures significantly changed the fasting serum concentration of TAG (p < 0.05) and body fat content (kg and %) (p < 0.05), without negative changes in FFM. The Carbo-L procedure increased (p < 0.05) fasting glucose levels significantly. A LCD may be suggested for athletes who want to reduce body mass and fat content without compromising muscle mass. Several weeks on a LCD does not change the lipoprotein - LDL-C and HDL-C level significantly, while a seven-day Carb-L procedure may increase body fat content and fasting glucose concentration. Such dietary procedures are recommended for team sport athletes to reduce fat mass, lipid profile disorders and insulin resistance.