The study describes construction of five recombinant very virulent (vv) and very virulent plus (vv+) strains lacking meq and viral telomerase (vTR). Deletion of both copies of meq and vTR was achieved by Red E/T recombination in GS1783 E. coli cells. The constructed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones reconstituted in chicken embryo fibroblasts were examined by immunofluorescence assay to compare the features of recombinant strains with wild-type viruses. The results demonstrated that recombinant BAC strains caused slightly reduced cytophatic effect and decreased level of the fluorescence obtained from the monoclonal antibody in comparison to the parental viruses. Generation of recombinant BAC clones may provide more detailed information on the function of Marek's disease virus oncogenes and the potential use of recombinants for the preparation of the new vaccine against Marek’s disease.
African swine fever (ASF) is currently one of the most severe viral infections of domestic pigs, wild boars, and other hosts belonging to Suidae family. ASF is also considered as the most complex and devastating infectious and haemorrhagic disease of swine due to its severe socio-economic impact and transboundary character. ASF it is a notifiable disease and due to the lack of specific treatment and vaccine, the disease can be only limited by the administrative measures comprising wild boar hunting and stamping out of affected pigs. ASF occurred for the first time in Kenya in 1921 while in Europe (Portugal) the virus was detected at the end of the 1950s. In spite of successful eradication of this threat in a number of affected regions, the virus remains endemic in both feral and domestic pigs in Africa and Sardinia. The ‘new era’ of ASF started in 2007 after its re-introduction to Georgia. Following its intensive expansion, the virus spread to other Caucasian countries, including the territory of the Russian Federation. In 2014 the virus reached Ukraine, Belarus, and, consequently, European Union countries: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Poland. The occurrence of ASF in wild boars and pigs had a severe impact on both epidemiology and economy because of the national and international transport and trade consequences. Up to date, starting from the February 2014, eighty ASF cases in wild boar and three outbreaks in domestic pigs have been diagnosed. Taking into account the diverse rate of spread in Poland, this review aims to present and discuss the current state of knowledge on ASF including its epidemiology, pathology, transmission, and perspectives of control.
Avian reticuloendotheliosis (RE) represents an important immunosuppressive disease of poultry. The occurrence of RE in both chickens and turkeys has an immunosuppressive effect and may lead to vaccination failures. Avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is widely distributed in different kinds of birds, causing subclinical infections. Another important issue adhering to this disease is contamination of vaccines against fowl pox (FP) and Marek’s disease (MD) with REV. The capability of REV to integrate into the genome of other larger DNA viruses complicates its diagnosis and prevention. There are no efficient vaccines against RE nor treatment, which also complicates how to limit its impact on poultry farming. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of this important immunosuppressive agent of poultry emphasising the importance of this problem in terms of diagnosis of RE.
African swine fever (ASF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease of pigs and wild boars. It presents a serious threat to pig production worldwide, and since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been recorded in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, and the Baltic States. In 2014, the disease was detected in Poland. ASF is on the list of notifiable diseases of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Due to the lack of an available vaccine and treatment, the countermeasures against the disease consist in early detection of the virus in the pig population and control of its spread through the elimination of herds affected by disease outbreaks. Knowledge of the potential vectors of the virus and its persistence in the environment is crucial to prevent further disease spread and to understand the new epidemiology for how it compares to the previous experience in Spain gathered in the 1970s and 1980s.
Porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) is a highly contagious and devastating enteric disease of pigs caused by porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Alphacoronavirus genus of the Coronaviridae family. The disease is clinically similar to other forms of porcine gastroenteritis. Pigs are the only known host of the disease, and the occurrence of PED in wild boars is unknown. The virus causes acute diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality in suckling piglets reaching 100%. Heavy economic losses in the pig-farming industry were sustained in the USA between 2013 and 2015 when PEDV spread very quickly and resulted in epidemics. The loss in the US pig industry has been estimated at almost seven million pigs. The purpose of this review is a description of the current status of porcine epidemic diarrhoea in European pigs and the risk presented by the introduction of PEDV to Poland in comparison to the epidemics in the USA.
Infectious diseases of swine, particularly zoonoses, have had a significant influence on nutritional safety and availability of pig meat as high-energy protein product since the time that pigs were domesticated back in the 7th century BC. The main sources of swine infectious diseases include the so-called primary sources (direct infection, i.e. through contact with infected and sick animals) and secondary sources (contaminated meat products, slaughter products, and vectors, including ticks). At present, the most serious epidemiological and economic threat to swine breeding in Europe is African swine fever (ASF). This disease, originally coming from Africa, is incurable and causes death of infected pigs and wild boars during 7−10 days after infection. Among the various factors that influence the spread of ASF, important role is played by ticks from the genus Ornithodoros, mainly from the species Ornithodoros moubata. Research on the ASF indicates that other species of ticks can also transmit the virus to healthy pigs in laboratory conditions. Sylvatic and domestic cycles of ASF virus transmission, which have been described so far, require further studies and updating in order to point the potential new vectors in the Caucasus and Eastern Europe affected by the ASF. Effective methods of control and biosecurity may significantly slow down the spread of ASF, which undoubtedly is a major threat to world pig production and international swine trade.
African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is currently one of the most important and serious diseases of pigs, mainly due to the enormous sanitary and socio-economic consequences. It leads to serious economic losses, not only because of the near 100% mortality rate, but also through the prohibitions of pork exports it triggers. Currently neither vaccines nor safe and effective chemotherapeutic agents are available against ASFV. The disease is controlled by culling infected pigs and maintaining high biosecurity standards, which principally relies on disinfection. Some countries have approved and/or authorised a list of biocides effective against this virus. This article is focused on the characteristics of chemical substances present in the most popular disinfectants of potential use against ASFV. Despite some of them being approved and tested, it seems necessary to perform tests directly on ASFV to ensure maximum effectiveness of the disinfectants in preventing the spread of ASF in the future.
A research project is underway aiming to develop a field diagnostic tool for six important viruses of the pig sector, namely: African swine fever virus (ASFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus (PCV2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV).
Material and Methods
To obtain a preliminary sounding of the interest in this type of instrument among its potential operators, a questionnaire was drawn up and submitted to three categories of stakeholders: farmers, veterinarians, and others (including scientific and technical staff working on animal farms). Four countries participated: Italy, Greece, Hungary, and Poland.
In total, 83 replies were collected and analysed in a breakdown by stakeholder type and pertinence, where the areas were the importance of the main diseases within the different countries, diagnostic tool operational issues, and economic issues.
The main end-users of this kind of instrument are expected to be private veterinarians and pig producers. The infectious agents seeming to be most interesting to diagnose with the instrument are PRRSV, SIV, PPV, and PCV2. The most decisive parameters which have been selected by the stakeholders are sensitivity, cost, simplicity, and time required to obtain results. The economic issue analysis showed that the majority of those who would prefer to buy rather than rent the device are willing to pay up to €3,000 for a diagnostic field tool.
Since 2007, African swine fever (ASF) has posed a serious threat to the European swine industry. In Poland, the numbers of reported outbreaks in pigs and affected areas grow every year. In 2018, the disease was noted in Western Europe, in Belgium specifically, where several hundred infected wild boars have been detected so far. In 2018, the virus unexpectedly emerged in pig holdings in eastern China, northern Mongolia, Vietnam, and Cambodia, causing worldwide concern about its further spread. Since there is still no vaccine available, the only approach to control the disease is biosecurity. Identification of potential sources of the virus is extremely important in light of its phenomenal survivability. The review summarises the current knowledge about ASFV survivability and resistance to environmental conditions, and discusses the role of indirect contact in spreading the disease.
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of simultaneous infection of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) with different doses of adenovirus field strain serotype 7 (FAdV-7 JN-5/10j) and turkey herpesvirus strain FC126 (FC126 HVT) on replication of the herpesvirus in in vitro cultures. Three experiments were performed: simultaneous infection of CEF with adenovirus and HVT; inoculation of CEF culture with adenovirus, followed by infection with HVT after 24 h; and inoculation of CEF with HVT, followed by the infection with adenovirus 24 h later. In order to detect the presence of HVT and adenovirus strains in CEF culture, SORF 1 and hexon genes were determined, respectively. The infection with adenovirus lowered replication of FC126 HVT in chicken embryo fibroblast.