Jolanta Grochowska, Grzegorz Wiśniewski and Renata Tandyrak
Productivity of lakes varying in water mass dynamics
The aim of the study was to reveal differences in the productivity of lakes varying distinctively in water mass dynamics, as shown by the examples of Lakes Track, Miodówko and Szeląg Wielki situated in the Olsztyńskie Lake District. The selected lakes are also characteristic for a high content of nutrients. The analysis of the obtained results has revealed that in the peak of the summer stagnation the productivity was the highest in the polymictic Lake Track. The content of chlorophyll a, which is a measure of primary production, in the Track waters reached the value of 123 mg m-3 whereas the water transparency measured as the visibility of a Secchi disc was below 0.6 m. The lowest primary production in the summer was observed in the bradymictic Lake Miodówko. The transparency of water in this lake was nearly 3 m while the content of chlorophyll a merely 1.7 mg m-3. Lake Szeląg Wielki, featuring the characteristics of a eumictic reservoir, in the peak of the summer period was noted for the average values of the analysed parameters (1.2 m water transparency, 40.3 mg m-3 chlorophyll a).
Grzegorz Wielgosiński, Robert Cichowicz and Jacek Wiśniewski
In quantitative terms, sludge produced in the process of municipal wastewater treatment represents a small part of the total waste generated in municipal sources - its quantity represents only a few percent of the generated mass of municipal waste. However, the threats it brings, do not allow it to be neglected while designing the wastewater treatment process. At the same time, with increasing requirements regarding the quality of sewage discharged into the environment, there is an increase in the amount of sludge produced in wastewater treatment processes. In recent years, the share of thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has risen sharply - about 12 modern sludge incineration plants have been built and construction of new ones is considered. During more than a four-year operation of the sewage sludge incineration plant in the Combined Sewage Treatment Plant in Lodz (GOS) a large ammonia emission from the combustion process was observed. So, a decision was taken to examine this process. The paper presents results of ammonia emission from the combustion of sewage sludge from GOS as a function of temperature.
Grzegorz Wielgosiński, Robert Cichowicz, Agata Targaszewska and Jacek Wiśniewski
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the new, little more popular in Poland of elements of environmental management. In the world literature one can find many examples of the use of LCA but mainly for comparison purposes. The paper presents results of LCA analysis made on the basis of data from a running incineration of sewage sludge. Performing a thorough analysis of this process enables improved operational system, including through a better use of the resulting products of combustion, as well as determining the impact of the thermal treatment of sludge on the environment and compared the results with data from the literature. To date, in Poland has not been carried out environmental impact assessments and the process of thermal treatment of both sludge and waste, based on the assumptions of LCA.
Izabela M. Bigaj, Renata Brzozowska, Michał Łopata, Grzegorz Wiśniewski, Julita A. Dunalska, Daniel Szymański and Rafał A. Zieliński
Coagulation behaviour of polyaluminium chloride (PACl) was comparatively investigated in terms of the removal of turbidity and colour with surface water. The growth of flocs was also compared. The results show that the decrease in saturation and values of dissolved oxygen was ca. 20% for ALCAT and PAX 18 at both dosages and 15% for PAX XL 19H, respectively. The floc formation growth indicated that PACl coagulation occurred not only by charge neutralization but also by a form of sweep flocculation. Besides, flocs formed by ALCAT had better sizes than the flocs formed by PAX 18 and PAX XL19H. The rate of sedimentation was stable during coagulation with higher doses, and it was dependent on the substance used.
Michał Łopata, Przemysław Czerniejewski, Grzegorz Wiśniewski, Robert Czerniawski and Jakub Drozdowski
The paper presents a proposal for the treatment of river water based on expanded clay (ceramsite). It is a lightweight mineral aggregate containing components relative to phosphorus adsorption (calcium, iron, manganese, aluminum). A pilot plant on a fractional technical scale was built on a nutrient rich (phosphorus up to 0.4 mg dm−3, nitrogen up to 10.0 mg dm−3), small (mean annual flow about 0.04 m3 s−1), natural watercourse (Młynówka River, a tributary of the Otok Channel, Noteć basin, the municipality of Strzelce Krajeńskie). The monitoring included quantitative and qualitative measurements of the water stream in 2014-2015. On the basis of the examinations, the calculated effectiveness of ceramsite filters in removing major contaminants from water was: for total nitrogen 5-6%, phosphorus 12-16%, and for suspensions 17-29%. The effectiveness of the treatment is highly influenced by hydraulic load, so this type application on a full-scale should occupy a sufficiently large volume. Taking into account simplicity of performance, ease of operation and low cost of construction and maintenance, such pretreatment plants based on expanded clay would seem to be a promising tool for the protection of surface waters in catchments of small rivers and streams.