In adult life, proper bone metabolism requires efficient regulation of bone formation and resorption processes. Bone turnover markers allow for assessing the rate of bone formation and resorption processes. In menopausal period, female patients experience gradual reduction in blood estradiol levels. The deficit of estrogens leads to enhanced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a membranebound enzyme that stimulates the osteoblast activity and bone mineralization. It is synthesized by osteoblasts and incorporated into the newly formed bone tissue. The produced enzyme stimulates the osteoblast activity and bone mineralization. The goal of this study is to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women on the expression of alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL) within the mucosal epithelium of the cheek and in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The studies show that hormone replacement therapy has no significant effect on the increase in ALPL expression within the mucosal epithelium of the cheek. Only in women having undergone ovarectomy (OV), the epithelial ALPL expression level was higher than in the remaining groups.
Background/Aim: The loss of teeth and its consequences for health, as well as the psychological discomfort it entails, have a negative impact on both self-reported health state and quality of life (QoL). Dental implantation aims to increase patients’ health and satisfaction and to improve all aspects of QoL. The purpose of this cross-sectional correlational study was to compare the patients’ QoL before and after dental implantation.
Material and Methods: The study comprised 62 patients aged between 24 and 77, including 28 (45.16%) women and 34 (54.84%) men, who reported to a private dental clinic in Szczecin, Poland to replace missing teeth with implants. The survey was carried out twice: prior to the treatment, when the decision to use implants had been made, and three months after implantation, during the first check-up. QoL was measured using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and sociodemographic data were collected using a questionnaire of the author.
Results: There were statistically significant differences between the assessment of health and QoL before and after implantation treatment. Both the patients’ health and comfort of life improved after therapy.
Conclusions: Replacement of missing teeth with dental implants brought overall improvement in patients’ QoL, social comfort, and general health. Dental implantation should be recommended in the early phase of edentulism, after tooth loss.
Personality traits, especially in sport are modulatory factors of athletes’ behavior – his/ her conscientiousness, the will to achieve an aim, perseverance and motivation of activity. Not only are biological predispositions related to anatomical or biochemical traits of success, but they are also largely determined by personality traits that result from genetic factors. In our research we joined tests of athlete’s personality in correlation with genotypes of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphism. The selection of this polymorphism was based on previous reports connecting the influence of dopamine with motivation and numerous arguments supporting its correlation with human behavior. We observed significant differences among polymorphisms DAT 9/9, 9/10, 10/10 in terms of proportion of particular genotypes between athletes and the control group. We also found significant differences in the NEO FFI sten scale for conscientiousness. We noticed that anxiety was related with genotypic variants of DAT1, specifically the 9/10 VNTR variant, which conditioned lower levels of anxiety in the group of tested athletes. By contrast, the lower sten value of agreeability was statistically significant for the group of athletes that were carriers of the 10/10 VNTR genotype. Heterozygous 9/10 VNTR among athletes showed lower levels of anxiety in comparison with the control group, whereas agreeability determined using the NEO FFI scale represented a lower value among athletes that had the 10/10 polymorphism. We may thus conclude that the presence of polymorphic variants of the dopamine transporter gene corresponds to athletes’ personality traits.
The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphic variant is a candidate to explain the individual differences in trainability and response to exercise training. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify whether the A1298C polymorphism influenced the aerobic and anaerobic performance as well as body and mass composition in young Polish women following low-high impact aerobic exercise training. Two hundred and one women aged 21 ± 1 years (range 19–24) were included in the study. All of them completed a 12-week exercise training program and were measured for selected somatic features, aerobic capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness indices as well as peak anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity, before and after the intervention. A mixed 2 x 2 ANOVA for 20 dependent variables grouped in three categories was conducted. No significant interaction of the genotype with training for body mass and body composition variables was observed. Although, there were three significant genotype x training interactions for maximal oxygen uptake variables, regardless of body mass i.e.: for VO2max (p < 0.05), HRmax (p < 0.0001) and HRAT/HRmax (p < 0.0001). Significantly greater improvement in VO2max was gained by the CC+AC group compared to the AA genotype group. The present results support the hypothesis that individual differences in trainability are at least in part determined by the genetic component and MTHFR A1298C seems to be one of the many polymorphisms involved.
The Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomograph (J-PET) collaboration is developing a prototype time of flight (TOF)-positron emission tomograph (PET) detector based on long polymer scintillators. This novel approach exploits the excellent time properties of the plastic scintillators, which permit very precise time measurements. The very fast field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based front-end electronics and the data acquisition system, as well as low- and high-level reconstruction algorithms were specially developed to be used with the J-PET scanner. The TOF-PET data processing and reconstruction are time and resource demanding operations, especially in the case of a large acceptance detector that works in triggerless data acquisition mode. In this article, we discuss the parallel computing methods applied to optimize the data processing for the J-PET detector. We begin with general concepts of parallel computing and then we discuss several applications of those techniques in the J-PET data processing.