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  • Author: Grzegorz Szymański x
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Open access

Tomasz Czajkowski and Grzegorz Szymański

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present the results of research concerning the utilisation of different aspects of electronic commerce and business in Polish e-shops, based on a number of comparative analyses performed for the years 2009-2011. Some of the presented data concern also the year 2008. The most important aspects covered by the analyses are: international trade and exports of Polish e-shops, marketing aspects of online businesses, the infrastructure and safety of Polish e-shops, their financial results, and also actions planned in order to minimise the effects of the economic crisis. The main conclusions drawn from these analyses, as well as predictions for the future for the Polish e-market, are also presented.

Open access

Barbara Mróz-Gorgoń and Grzegorz Szymański

Abstract

The number of Internet users in Poland is permanently increasing, the vast majority of Y generation use the Internet at least once a week, while the youngest generation (born after 2000) consider the Internet to be a part of their normal life. Shopping online should be something natural and ordinary for Internet users and the main barriers of the development of e-commerce such as security of transactions, time and cost of delivery are regarded as a standard and truism. The ROPO effect is a major problem for the rapid development of the e-commerce sector. However, the analyzed clothing industry, due to the individual characteristics of products, is a different e-commerce area than others. The obtained results indicate that about 33% of women and men use the Internet as a place to get information about clothing products. Research Online, Purchase Offline, that is, search for information, reviews, or online prices, while buying in the traditional way. The purpose of the publication is to identify the size of the ROPO effect the clothing industry. In order to meet this goal, we analyzed the results of more than 4.000 respondents who have recently purchased clothing products

Open access

Jakub Bernat, Jakub Kołota, Sławomir Stępień and Grzegorz Szymański

An inductance lookup table application for analysis of reluctance stepper motor model

This research presents a method of modeling and numerical simulation of a reluctance stepper motor using reduced finite-element time-stepping technique. In presented model, the circuit equations are reduced to non-stationary differential equations, i.e. the inductance mapping technique is used to find relationship between coil inductance and rotor position. A strongly coupled field-circuit model of the stepper motor is presented. In analyzed model the magnetostatic field partial differential equations are coupled with rotor motion equation and solved simultaneously in each iterative step. The nonlinearity problem is solved using Newton-Raphson method with spline approximation of the B-H curve.

Open access

Izabela M. Bigaj, Renata Brzozowska, Michał Łopata, Grzegorz Wiśniewski, Julita A. Dunalska, Daniel Szymański and Rafał A. Zieliński

Abstract

Coagulation behaviour of polyaluminium chloride (PACl) was comparatively investigated in terms of the removal of turbidity and colour with surface water. The growth of flocs was also compared. The results show that the decrease in saturation and values of dissolved oxygen was ca. 20% for ALCAT and PAX 18 at both dosages and 15% for PAX XL 19H, respectively. The floc formation growth indicated that PACl coagulation occurred not only by charge neutralization but also by a form of sweep flocculation. Besides, flocs formed by ALCAT had better sizes than the flocs formed by PAX 18 and PAX XL19H. The rate of sedimentation was stable during coagulation with higher doses, and it was dependent on the substance used.