The paper presents the analysis of electromechanical characteristics of piezoelectric converters subjected to an electric field and mechanical load. The analyses were performed based on a method consisting implementation of special segments responsible for electrical boundary conditions to a homogeneous beam. Constitutive equations were developed, allowing one to obtain static electromechanical characteristics for piezoelectric actuators with freely defined boundary conditions and geometry. Moreover, based on constitutive equations obtained, a particular solution for cantilever transducer subjected to concentrated force has been developed. The resulting analytical solution was compared with the data available in the literature, and the developed FEM solution. Furthermore, the influence of factors such as relative length, thickness and location of particular piezoelectric layers on electromechanical characteristics of the transducer was defined.
The increasing application of composite materials in the construction of machines causes strong need for modelling and evaluating their strength. There are many well known hypotheses used for homogeneous materials subjected to monotone and cyclic loading conditions, which have been verified experimentally by various authors. These hypotheses should be verified also for composite materials. This paper provides experimental and theoretical results of such verifications for bimaterial structures with interfacial cracks. Three well known fracture hypotheses of: Griffith, McClintock and Novozhilov were chosen. The theoretical critical load values arising from each hypotheses were compared with the experimental data including uni and multi-axial loading conditions. All tests were carried out with using specially prepared specimens of steel and PMMA.