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Grzegorz Maciejewski


The aim of the article is to present consumer attitudes in Poland in respect of modern solutions in the retail trade and the influence which these attitudes have on their behaviour in the market. The considerations were conducted using methods of logical inference, based on a critical analysis of available derivative sources and conclusions from quantitative research conducted on a sample of 1.075 consumers. In order to analyse more deeply the research results a cluster analysis was conducted using one of the hierarchical methods - the Ward’s method. Respondents’ attitudes towards modern solutions in the retail trade are generally positive. However they are not always recognized by them. A large percentage of respondents declared that they are not acquainted with particular forms of modern retail trade (mostly Beacon, PSS or RIFID systems). They were mostly consumers from the ‘retreated skeptics’ group, in other words the elderly with basic or vocational education from small towns and villages. The research findings presented may be used by trade enterprises in order to answer to the identified need of consumers from generation Z and to set out the direction of the technological education of consumers and increase the availability of particularised solutions

Open access

Grzegorz Wallner, Michał Solecki, Ryszard Ziemiakowicz, Grzegorz Ćwik, Przemysław Dyndor and Ryszard Maciejewski

Acute pancreatitis is a severe clinical conditio that causes significant mortality in patients. Since we do not have at the moment effective causal treatment research on the use of pro tease inhibitors can produce tangible benefits. In view of the growing number of cases and high mortality in severe AP with one hand, and the lack of a usal treatment research efforts undertaken to search for effective drugs for this disease seem to have deep reasons.

Aim of the study was to determine the histopathological changes in the pancreas in the treatment of acute pancreatitis with Ulinastatin.

Material and methods. The study was conducted in male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams. 150 individuals were used for the experiment, 60 of them were treated with Ulinastatin. Experimental acute pancreatitis was induced by the model proposed by Aho and Henckel using sodium taurocholate. Ulinastatin dose numer depended on the duration of the experiment. For histopathological examination pancreatic fragments weighing approximately 1 g each were taken. Assessment and documentation of histopathological preparations were made by light microscopy.

Results. Evaluation of the histological preparations of various time groups showed significantly improved results after application of Ulinastatin, depending on the duration of the inflammation and the number of doses of the drug.

Conclusions. Application for the treatment of UTI leads to inhibition of the inflammatory process at the stage of pancreatic edema and in cases of severe necrotizing course limits the progression of the disease which gives grounds for its clinical use in humans.

Open access

Grzegorz Opielak, Maciej Kozioł, Tomasz Zuzak, Piotr Piech and Ryszard Maciejewski


Introduction: On account of its radical character, suicide is differently perceived by the society. The consequence of this phenomenon is the issue of moral evaluation by the society in the practical aspects of daily life, such as religious, psychological and social ones. Regarding society’s complexity, it is understandable that the knowledge and the evaluation of this act amongst people are different.

Materials and methods: In the study a method of the diagnostic survey was applied. The questionnaire was conducted amongst 168 individuals ranging from 18 to 49 years of age. The study involved 69 women and 99 men. The arranged personal data questionnaire served as the evaluation of perceiving the suicidal act and people’s knowledge about this occurrence.

Results: Respondents claim that suicidal behaviours affect 72.5% of young people, and 22.7% of adult men. Large group of the study participants had personal experience with individuals after a suicide attempt (41.92%). As many as 49.7% of individuals are fierce opponents of suicidal acts while 46.1% are of an opinion that ‘the one who commits suicide should not be condemned or judged’.

Conclusions: Respondents present vast knowledge about the universality of suicide phenomenon and its most frequent causes. They are against such behaviour, but do not condemn individuals who committed this act. The study participants show understanding of ways to prevent suicide.

Open access

Ryszard Maciejewski, Sebastian Radej, Jacek Furmaga, Andrzej Chrościcki, Sławomir Rudzki, Jacek Roliński and Grzegorz Wallner


Dendritic cells are heterogeneous population of the leukocytes and most potent APC in activation of naive T lymphocytes. Therefore the DCs generated in vitro are under research for their application in anti-tumor immunotherapy.

The aim of the study was generation of the immature dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes collected from colorectal cancer patients and comparison of their ability to endocytosis, cytokine production and immunophenotype to DCs generated from healthy donors.

Material and methods. 16 adenocarcinoma stage II patients were included in the study. Dendritic cells were generated in the presence of rhGM-CSF and IL-4. PBMC were isolated from the blood of patients and 16 healthy donors - control group. Immunophenotype, ability of endocytosis of Dextran- FITC as well as intracellular IL-12 expression of the generated dendritic cells was measured using flow cytometry. The cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-γ) concentration in the supernatants of DCs culture was measured by ELISA.

Results. The percentage of the immature dendritic cells and expression of CD206 and CD209 antigens was significantly higher in patients group (p <0.05 and p <0.001 respectively). Significantly (p <0.001) higher expression of the antigens which initiate the Th2 immune response (CD80-/CD86 + and B7-H2 + / CD209 +) was in the patients group. There were no differences in endocytosis ability and the cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-γ) concentration between investigated groups.

Conclusions. High immature markers expression on the generated dendritic cells together with identical endocytosis ability in patients group is advantageous in antitumor autologous cells immunotherapy planning. However there is one troubling fact - high expression of markers, which may induce tolerance to particular antigen. It seems to be more reasonable to use the autologous DCs in the antitumor immunotherapy, especially due to the incompatibility in allogenic cells in the context of HLA complex.

Open access

Sebastian Radej, Jacek Roliński, Karol Rawicz-Pruszyński, Paweł Bury, Grzegorz Borowski, Jacek Furmaga, Andrzej Chrościcki, Grzegorz Wallner and Ryszard Maciejewski


Application of cells with high TAA (tumor associated antigen) presentation potential seems to be crucial in neoplasia immunotherapy. Such feature is distributed in dendritic cells, which present peptides from processed TAA - MHC molecules complex to the T cells of a host.

The aim of the study was to assess the influence of colon neoplasia tissue lysate on functioning of generated autologous DC’s in the field of autologous CD4+ lymphocytes immunological response towards Th1/Th2 under in vitro environment together with comparison and assessment of DCs’ immunosuppressive properties acquired from patients with colon cancer.

Material and methods. The population of this study consisted of 16 healthy- controls, 36colon cancer patients. Blood samples were collected 24h before planned surgery and preventive antibiotic therapy. Neoplastic tissue sample, was digested for cell lysates preparation. DC’s generation from PBMC was carried out in standard conditionsand medium enriched with rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4. Mature DC`s and cocultured autologous CD4 lymphocytes immunophenotype assessment was analyzed with flow cytometer. Intracellular and culture medium cytokines concentration was analyzed with ELISA and FACS method.

Results. DC`s generated from colon cancer patients stimulated with lysates presented greater maturity, lower expression of CD206 antigen, significantly higher expression of HLA-DR, CD208 and CD209 and high intracellular expression of IL-12, compared to non-stimulated cells.

Conclusions. The neoplastic tissue in vivo produces a number of substances having an unfavorable effect on immune system, our results suggests using lysates as good dendritic cells stimulators that possibly could have application in colon cancer immunotherapy