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  • Author: Grzegorz Kowaleczko x
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Abstract

The article presents a mathematical model of ejection process, which can be used to analyse the movement of the seat-pilot system in flight phase until ejecting the headrest and may also be utilised to assess the movement of the seat after the pilot has separated when the seat has been propelled out of the aircraft. By constructing the model, the information was used regarding the K-36DM ejection seat, which was supplemented with data on other ejection seats. The demonstrated mathematical model provides a basis to produce a simulation model useful in estimating the efficiency of ejection applying the K-36DM seat.

Abstract

This paper presents method of flight simulations for released laser guided bomb. Calculations were performed using six-degrees-of-freedom mathematical model of a bomb motion. Aerodynamics of the bomb was calculated using commercial software. Control laws were determined on the basis of signals detected by two pairs of laser sensors. Exemplary results of numerical calculations are submitted and conclusions focused on the main factors influencing on bombing accuracy are shown.

Abstract

Ground resonance is an unbalance of the helicopter main rotor rotation caused by its asymmetry. Whilst the helicopter is in contact with the ground this asymmetry generates a divergent and often destructive oscillations of the helicopter structure. These oscillations are self-excited. This paper present results of both theoretical and experimental investigations of this phenomenon. They were dedicated to the new polish UAV helicopter ILX-27. The theoretical analysis were done with commercial software ANSYS using Finite Element Method. The virtual model of the helicopter model accurately reproduced the geometry of all elements of the helicopter and was easy to modify to simulate various kinds of damages. Calculations were done for the following cases: C1 – the helicopter standing on the ground with zero thrust of the rotor, C2 = C1 + helicopter with additional support of the rotor mast, C3 = C2 + thrust of the rotor equal to the total mass of the helicopter, C4 = C2 + fixing the helicopter to the ground, C5 = C2 + helicopter with additional mass. At the beginning the modal analysis for all cases was done – natural frequencies and modes of the structure were identified. Next, for selected cases, harmonic analysis was performed – the structure of the helicopter was loaded with concentrated harmonic forces. Finally the dynamic analysis gave time courses of blades and the hub center motions in the case of structural damages. All phases of simulations were correlated with ground tests of the helicopter prototype. This allowed to compare results of theoretical investigations. These results also supported tests of the prototype.

Abstract

The article discusses the method of modelling of the helicopter main rotor aerodynamic loads during steady state flight and manoeuvres. The ability to determine these loads was created by taking into account the motion of each blade relative to the hinges and was a result of the applied method of aerodynamic loads calculating. The first part of the work discusses the basic relationships that were used to build the mathematical model of helicopter flight. The focus was also on the method of calculating of the aerodynamic forces generated by the rotor blades. The results of simulations dedicated to the “jump to hover” manoeuvre were discussed, showing the possibilities of analysing aerodynamic loads occurring in unsteady flights. The main rotor is considered separately in an “autonomous” way and treated as a source of averaged forces and moments transferred to the hub. The motion of individual blades is neglected, and their aerodynamic characteristics are radically simplified. The motion of individual blades is neglected, and their aerodynamic characteristics are radically simplified. This can lead to significant errors when attempting to model dynamic helicopter manoeuvres. The more complex model of helicopter dynamics is discussed.

Abstract

The article presents results of simulation of 6-DOF motion for a missile subjected to atmospheric turbulences. Therefore, an applied mathematical model of motion includes description of stochastic turbulences influencing on missile flight. Both models of the motion as well as of turbulences are shortly presented. Model validity was assessed by comparing the calculation results with the data recorded during shooting on the range. Result of series of simulations allows determining the missile sensitivity to this case of disturbances. Exemplary results of simulations are shown.

The turbulence model assumes that the wind is dependent on time and space. This assumption is based on the Taylor’s “frozen turbulence” hypothesis. The advection velocity of the turbulence is much greater than the velocity scale of the turbulence itself. The velocity has two component. In the article, the first component is omitted and the second is treated as the stochastic process representing atmospheric turbulence. To describe this turbulence Shinozuka’s method was applied. Mathematical description of the missile motion, equations of translatory motion, External forces end moments, model of the turbulence are presented in the article.

Abstract

The subject of the research was a catastrophic recorder of the S2-3a system for recording flight parameters, developed at the Air Force Institute of Technology. The article discusses tests of catastrophic recorders’ resilience to factors present at aircraft accidents. The document specifying the requirements for catastrophic recorders of flight parameters includes the defence standard: NO-16-A200, and the European standard: EuroCAE ED-112. According to NO-16-A200 and ED-112 standards, the protective unit should be resistant to: g-forces existing during crash, puncture, compression, fire, underwater pressure and aggressive liquids.

Abstract

The article discusses the main features of the applied simulation model of helicopter flight indicating references, where it was elaborated in detail. It focuses on presenting the simulation results of pull-up manoeuvre during which the helicopter does not respond correctly. The reasons for the behaviour as mentioned above were explained based on the results of calculations. The capabilities of the simulation model were used to determine the current loads of particular blades of the helicopter’s main rotor. The results were illustrated by maps of the angles of attack and aerodynamic lift on the surface of the main rotor and the distributions of these parameters along blades on characteristic azimuth for individual manoeuvre phases.

Abstract

The article presents the results of numerical simulation of a laser-guided bomb, which is dropped in calm weather conditions. The prototype of such a bomb was developed at the Air Force Institute of Technology. It was a result of the modification process of the classical training bomb. The modification consisted of building on the bomb's board a detection system to track targets that are designated by laser and a control system to adjust bomb’s glide path to precisely strike the target. In the simulation research, geometric and mass characteristics of the classical training bomb were used. Aerodynamic characteristics of the bomb have been determined using commercial software PRODAS. Using the mathematical model of the bomb spatial motion and model of the laser detection system series of simulations were performed. The main goal was to determine the effectiveness of the adopted construction solution. Therefore, simulations were performed for various initial positions of the bomb and fixed position of the target. It allowed finding the set of control laws coefficients giving the most accuracy of the bomb. The influence of structural modifications of the detection system on the possibility of effective detection and location of the target was also investigated. In the article, exemplary results of numerical calculations performed with the author's software are also shown.

Abstract

The article presents the results of numerical simulations of the bomb-fluger system drop. This system consists of two rigid bodies – a bomb and a fluger, which are connected by a biaxial joint. For the analysis, an author's program was used to simulate the bomb-fluger system drop. Influence of the characteristic points of the system on its stability and dynamics was investigated. Particularly, locations of a bomb mass centre, a fluger mounting point, a fluger aerodynamic focus were tested. The article presents a model of the examined bomb in the wind tunnel, characteristic points of a bomb-fluger system, waveforms of values rate of change angles and the values of angles for different distances, waveforms of values of the angle of nutation and the pitch angle of the fluger relative to the bomb, diagrams of examined points of the location of the centre of the mass and pressure of the fluger, waveforms of values rate of change angles and the values of these angles for different locations of the centre of the mass of the fluger, waveforms of values of the angle of nutation and the pitch angle of the fluger relative to the bomb for different locations.

Abstract

The wing is the main aircraft construction element, whose main task is to produce the lift, balancing the aircraft weight as well as ensuring the execution of all flight states for which the aircraft was designed. The selection of appropriate airfoils or the development of new ones is one of the most important constructions goals. As a rule, constructors aim at ensuring a sufficiently large lift with little aerodynamic drag in order to increase the scope of utility angles of attack and such shaping of these characteristics so that the aircraft performance, close to the critical angles of attack, guarantees an adequate level of safety. One of the methods of improving the aerodynamic properties of airfoils is the Kline-Fogleman modification. It involves an application of a step into the airfoil contour at a place. It enforces the creation of a swirling air stream, preventing the separation and maintaining airflow over the profile and thus the reduction of drags, as well as delaying separation. The use of this type of a solution is justified when designing unmanned aerial vehicles, of small sizes, which move with slow speeds and sometimes-large angles of attack, including those close to critical angels of attack. The Kline-Fogleman modification decreases the likelihood of aircraft stalling.

The aim of this work is to present an analysis of airflow over NACA0012 airfoil with Kline-Fogleman modification. The calculations were made by solving the problem of numerical fluid mechanics. For calculations, the Comsol Maribor programme was used. The investigation focused on several different airfoil modifications (KFm-1, KFm-2, KFm-3). This enabled a selection of a solution, providing the most desirable aerodynamic characteristics.