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Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

There are precious remnants of Tilio-Carpinetum vegetation in the Nysa Kłodzka Valley near Grodków forming three forests. During the years 2002-2004, the line transect method has been employed to assess dominance of birds breeding in these forests. Three transects were fixed in the forest interior and two transects on the edges along the Nysa Kłodzka river. A total of 63 bird species were recorded, inside the forests - 59, while on the edges - 51 species. Both in the interior and on the edges dominant species constituted 53%. However, species composition in the dominant groups were different. Both in interior and on the edges Fringilla coelebs, Sturnus vulgaris, Phylloscopus collybita and Sylvia atricapilla dominated; in interior forest Parus major, Sitta europaea and Erithacus rubecula were also dominants, while on the edges - Turdus merula and Emberiza citrinella were also in this group. In comparison with natural Tilio-Carpinetum hornbeam forest, the proportion of dominant species in hornbeam forests near Grodków was lower, what is probably the result of the edge effect.

Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

During the years 2002-2010, distribution and numbers of eight bird species were studied in the whole city of Wrocław, SW Poland (293 km2). The estimation for these species are as follow: Streptopelia turtur: 3 breeding pairs, Upupa epops: 1, Cuculus canorus: 49, Emberiza hortulana: 7, Luscinia megarhynchos: 214-286, Phoenicurus phoenicurus: 87-118, Turdus pilaris: 105-150, Hippolais icterina: 136-181. In comparison with 1980‘s and 1990’s, a rapid increase in the numbers P. phoenicurus, and T. pilaris, and a slight increase of L. megarhynchos and Cuculus canorus were documented. T. pilaris began to breed in the city in the end of 1990‘s. The increase may indicate that the habitats in Wrocław improved both in regard to food availability, nesting sites and other environmental requisitions. The increase in the numbers recorded for C. canorus, P. phoe-nicurus, and L. megarhynchos may also be a result of good conditions prevailing in their wintering grounds in sub-Saharan Africa.

Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

Studies were conducted from 1998-2002 in the Moloti/Drakensberg area, Lesotho, southern Africa. A total of 155 nesting sites of the Cape Waever and 75 nesting sites of the Southern Masked Weaver were found. Almost all nesting sites of both weaver species were situated along river courses vegetated with willows, poplars and other tree species. They often nested in sympatry. Although most nesting sites of both Cape and Southern Masked Weaver were located in the indigenous Salix suberecta, they occupied other tree species with different frequency, so that, on overall they differed significantly in nest site choice. Also the mean number of nests per breeding site was different: 8.4 in the Cape Weaver and 3.3 in the Southern Masked Weaver.

Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

Niemodlin countryside (c. 300 km2) is situated in the south-western part of Opole Silesia, SW Poland. Forests occupy c. 40%, arable grounds – 1/3, and meadows and pastures – 7%. There are 31 fish-ponds with a total diked surface of 663 ha. The paper presents results of field investigations carried out during the years 2002-2007 and an analysis of changes in the breeding avifauna over the last 56 years. During the years 2002-2007, 123 breeding and 11 probably breeding bird species were recorded in this area. During the years 1962-2007 151 species were recorded as breeding residents; and additional five species – as probably breeding resident. The following species were recorded as breeding for the first time in 1962-2007: Haliaeetus albicilla, Larus canus, Motacilla cinerea, Saxicola torquata, Locustella luscinioides, Ficedula albicollis, Corvus corax and Carpodacus erythrinus. In the same period the following species became extinct: Podiceps nigricollis, Anas clypeata, Milvus milvus, and Tringa glareola. The following species increaed in numbers in 1962-2007: Coturnix coturnix, Grus grus, Columba oenas, Apus apus, Dryocopus martius, Dendrocopos medius, Motacilla cinerea, Saxicola torquata and Corvus corax. In the same period, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps grisegena, Ciconia ciconia, Aythya nyroca, Perdix perdix, Gallinago gallinago, Larus ridibundus, Tyto alba, Alcedo atthis, Picus viridis, Riparia riparia and Corvus cornix decreased in numbers. The areas with the highest concentration of rare and endangered species are postulated to be protected as nature reserves, landscape parks and other spatial forms of nature conservation.

Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

Breeding bird community in a densely built-up area (mainly block buildings with abundant trees and shrubs) in the city of Wroclaw (96.8 ha) were compared between the year 1996 and 2009. In 2009, 25 breeding species were recorded. Columba livia and Passer domesticus were eudominants comprising together 60.2% of the bird community, while Apus apus and Passer montanus were dominants (together 11.1%). The most common were granivores (66.8%; 4 species) and insectivores (19.0%, 14 species). In comparison with 1996, the following species have increased in numbers by the year 2009: Columba palumbus, Pica pica, Corvus cornix, Parus caeruleus, Passer montanus, Carduelis chloris, Sylvia atricapilla, Falco tinnunculus and Turdus pilaris; while Corvus monedula, Phoenicurus ochruros, Turdus merula, Fringilla coelebs, Muscicapa striata, Hippolais icterina and Streptopelia decaocto have decreased.

Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha) was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha), gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha) were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha) were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%), in/on buildings (30.2%) and in trees/shrubs (25.6%). Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

Of 46,160 birds ringed in South African heronries from 1951 through 1987, 481 were subsequently recovered (recovery rate: 1.04%). Most of these birds were ringed in the Western Cape (N = 173), KwaZulu-Natal (N = 142) and Gauteng (N = 106). The age of the recovered birds ranged from 0 to 23 years. Almost two thirds were 0-2 years old, and only 1.2% were 15 years or older. The average age of the recovered birds was 4.9 years (N = 465). The mortality rate was highest in their first and second year (31-36%). Nearly one third of the birds recovered (N = 134) were sick or injured, and 30.6% had been shot. Relatively low mortality, a long life span and relatively low predation pressure may contribute to the great success of the Cattle Egret in colonising various parts of the world. The paper presents the initial state for the likely future evolution of the distribution of the species.

Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

In Poland, forests comprise 31% of the total surface area, while the lowland coniferous forests comprise 51% of 94 000 km2 afforested areas. The line transect method was employed in 2002 and 2004 to estimate population densities and dominance of all bird species breeding in a selected fragment of such forest (eight transects with 165 sections and 77.7 km in total length). In total, 54 breeding bird species were recorded. The numbers varied between 37 and 44 on the particular transect. The number of breeding pairs per 10 ha varied on each transect from 41.0 to 93.6 (x=64.8; SD=102.22). Shannon’s diversity index varied between 1.2 and 1.4 on particular transects, while Simpson’s diversity index varied between 0.7 and 0.9. Also Pieleau’s evenness index varied slightly between 0.05 and 0.07. In overall, the differences between densities of breeding species on 8 transects were not statistically significant. The Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs was by far the most numerous bird species, recorded as eudominant in all eight transects and present in all 165 sections. The second to the Chaffinch was the Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita; also recorded in all sections and as a dominant in all transects. Three other species, namely the Blackbird Turdus merula, Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus and Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla were recorded each one in more than 90% sections (N=165), and on particular transects their dominance varied between 4 and 11%. Residents comprised 57.5% of all breeding pairs. Short-distance migrants were almost twice more common than long-distance migrants. Insectivores were by far the most numerous feeding guild represented 88.9% of all breeding pairs. Overall density, cumulative dominance, diversity and evenness were unexpectedly very similar in this study (managed forest) and in natural primeval lowland coniferous forests of Białowieża.

Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

In Maloti/Drakensberg region, southern Africa, Cape Sparrow locates nests (N=108) mainly in trees (38.9%), shrubs (27.8%) and man-made structures (29.6%). Most occupied trees were exotic (31.6%), while all (27.8%) occupied shrubs were indigenous. A few nests (3.8%) were found in disused weavers’ nests. Nesting sites ranged in height from 1.5 m to 10 m above the ground; on average – 4.2 m (N=52).

Open access

Grzegorz Kopij

Abstract

There are three Passer species in Lesotho: House Sparrow P. domesticus, Cape Sparrow P. melanurus, and Grey-headed Sparrow P. diffusus. The House Sparrow is an introduced species, recorded first in Lesotho in 1954. Today, all three species are very numerous (as dominants or subdominants) in urban and rural areas in all ecozones in the country. With an increase of altitude the proportion of Cape Sparrows in relation to the other sparrow species increases, while the reverse is true for the Grey-headed Sparrow. The proportion of House Sparrows appears to be only slightly affected by altitude. In some areas, the House Sparrow may displace the Grey-headed Sparrow.