The publication presents a UAV pneumatic launcher designed and built in ITWL. The basic element of the pneumatic launcher is the launch mechanism. The starting mechanism determines the energy parameters that will be reached on the launch pad. The work of the launch engines used in propulsion systems has been reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed when used in pneumatic launchers. A detailed description of the author’s solution of the pneumatic launching mechanism from the launcher is presented. In order to determine guidelines for the design of pneumatic starter systems, a description of the cycle of operation of the complex pneumatic system was analysed. The description of the pneumatic system’s work cycle was based on the parameters of the flow of the compressed air C and b (C – the sound conductivity of the pneumatic element, b – the critical pressure of the pneumatic element). A set of equations describing the pressure change in the filled and emptied valve compartment and the equation of motion are presented. The equations of a mathematical model describing the pneumatic component and the replacement value of flow parameters for the pneumatic system of series pneumatic components are presented. For the mathematical model, a calculation algorithm is presented which takes into account the initial conditions and the boundary conditions of the various periods of the pneumatic system cycle. Examples of calculation results for a specific pneumatic trigger mechanism are shown. The results obtained were compared with the results of the pneumatic starter station tests and the mathematical model of the pneumatic starter was evaluated.
The correct operation of the hydraulic pump and achieving the assumed durability depends on the purity of the used working fluid. The research paper discusses a method for evaluating the contamination sensitivity of a hydraulic plunger pump. The theoretical grounds for evaluating the contamination sensitivity of hydraulic plunger pumps of a hydraulic drive based on the contamination sensitivity factor were presented. An example of evaluating contamination sensitivity of an NP-34M hydraulic plunger pump was discussed.
The article presents a methodology for the implementation of preliminary and state tests on the example of the project entitled “Jet air targets with a programmable flight route” conducted by the Air Force Institute of Technology. The experience in the field of maneuvering aerial targets has allowed for implementation of an aerial jet target set. The further stages of research necessary to implement the set for operation have been presented. Investigations of the aerial jet targets were carried out based on the regulations in force in the Polish Armed Forces.
One of the approaches to ensure friction stability in hydraulic precise pairs can be coating their components with low-friction materials with the friction coating method using a metal, e.g. brass. The article presents the method of applying brass on the steel surface of a hydraulic pair using friction. It discusses the technology of brass plating of hydraulic precise pairs and the results of laboratory tests involving friction-brasses hydraulic precise pairs. The factors impacting the quality of brass-coating process of hydraulic precise pairs and the requirements set for hydraulic precise pairs subject to friction-brassing were also discussed.
This paper presents modeling of geometric errors in guide rail systems and how these errors affect their static characteristics. The finite-element method was used for computational analysis, supplemented with technical modeling of butt joints. Different types of geometric errors were assigned to individual elements of guide rail systems, with variations in distributions of clearances and preloads. Selected results of the computational analysis are presented.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are currently a very rapidly developing type of aviation. The problem of support during the take-off with the use of, i.e. take-off launchers arose along with their development, especially for UAVs with weights and dimensions preventing manual take-off. One of the major issues associated with UAV take-off launchers is for its UAV accelerating element to obtain its initial speed. The article presents three methods of determining launcher take-off speeds for unmanned aerial vehicles, i.e. the concentrated very oblique projection method, the high-speed camera methods, and the acceleration recorder method. The take-off launcher carriage speed in the oblique projection method is determined from a formula. This method involves “ejections” of concentrated masses from the UAV mass range and measuring the component values resulting from the used formula, which contains the range of the oblique projection, the elevation of the projection and its angle. The method using the high-speed camera involves recording the course of ejections of the concentrated mass from the launcher. The average take-off speed is determined on the basis of a take-off run length (section of the launcher race, where the unit accelerates) and defining the start and end frame of the carriage movement. The third method for the determination of the take-off speed utilizes an acceleration recorder. The method with the recorder involves registering a change in the accelerations when the take-off carriage is being accelerated by a system fixed on the carriage or the accelerated object. The article presents the methodology of dynamic tests of object acceleration on a launcher, necessary for the determination of speed with the mentioned methods. Selected results from actual tests with the use of the 01/WS/2015 launcher, which is an element of the ZOCP JET2 set, were presented. The test results are presented in a tabular form. The methods for the determination of the take-off speed were compared on the basis of performed tests. Based on the obtained results, the factors impacting the accuracy of each of the methods were identified.
The subject of this publication is a mathematical model of a pneumatic supply system for an emergency parachute system. This system is intended for a vertical take-off and landing UAV. An overview of emergency parachute landing system designs is presented in the introduction. Based on a schematic diagram and a 3D computer model, the construction and operation principles of an emergency parachute system, currently being developed at AFIT, was presented. A mathematical model, which enables the determination of the energy of gas (compressed CO2) stored in the accumulator tank was described. The conducted tests, which involved weighing the accumulator after filling with liquefied CO2 from a special cartridge and equivalent mass ejections were discussed. These tests involved recording the track of the equivalent mass movement and time necessary to determine velocity. The results of calculations regarding the equivalent mass energy imitating an emergency parachute, CO2 volume and mass in the accumulator in liquefied and gaseous state were presented. Based on the conducted calculations and the obtained characteristics, the developed mathematical model was assessed, and the final conclusions formulated.
The article presents the tests that were conducted to examine the possibility of the fuel filter shank’s thread shearing under the impact of hydrostatic pressure. Increased wear due to friction was confirmed on the threads of the titanium shanks that were tested, together with significantly reduced wear of the mating threads and steel sleeves. Shearing tests confirmed that to shear a thread that is worn to a degree similar to the threads that were tested, it is necessary to apply eight times more static pressure than the maximum pressure in the filter. A comparison of the shape of the coils of the thread that was subjected to the pressure test with the thread from the damaged filter demonstrated a significant difference in the wearing of these elements due to friction.
The paper outlines workflows associated with troubleshooting of avionic hydraulic systems with detailed description of the troubleshooting algorithm and classification of diagnostic signals provided by avionic hydraulic systems and their subassemblies. Attention is paid to measurement sequences for diagnostic signals from hydraulic systems, circuits and units. Detailed description is dedicated to an innovative design of a troubleshooting device intended for direct measurements of internal leaks from avionic hydraulic units. Advantages of the proposed measurement method are summarized with benefits from use of the presented device and compared against the methods that are currently in use. Subsequent phases of the troubleshooting process are described with examples of measurement results that have been acquired from subassemblies of hydraulic systems of SU-22 aircrafts currently in service at Polish Air Forces with consideration given to cases when the permissible threshold of diagnostic signals were exceeded. Finally, all results from investigations are subjected to thorough analysis.
This paper presents a new approach to modeling geometric errors in machine tools with linear rolling guideways. Modeling was performed using a finite element method. The results of the modeling were a visualization of deformations of a virtual milling machine with a cross table and with known characteristics of guide geometric errors. The simulation results show that the machine table is subject to a complex state of strain. This implies that the Abbe error during milling machine measurements can assume values dependent on the location of metrological device elements on the machine table. The calculation results were verified experimentally using real milling machines. The predictions of the computer simulation were confirmed.