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Mariusz Grabiec, Dariusz Puczko, Tomasz Budzik and Grzegorz Gajek

Snow distribution patterns on Svalbard glaciers derived from radio-echo soundings

The spatial distribution of snow thickness on glaciers is driven by a set of climatological, meteorological, topographical and orographic conditions. This work presents results of snow accumulation studies carried out from 2006 to 2009 on glaciers of different types: valley glacier, ice plateau and ice cap. In order to determine snow depth, a shallow radio echo-sounding method was used. Based on the results, the following snow distribution patterns on Svalbard glaciers have been distinguished: precipitation pattern, precipitation-redistribution pattern, redistribution pattern and complex pattern. The precipitation pattern assumes that the snow distribution on glaciers follows the altitudinal gradient. If the accumulation gradient is significantly modified by local factors like wind erosion and redeposition, or local variability of precipitation, the accumulation pattern turns into the precipitation-redistribution pattern. In the redistribution pattern, local factors play a crucial role in the spatial variability of snow depth. The complex pattern, however, demonstrates the co-existence of different snow distribution patterns on a single glacial object (glacier/icecap/ice field).

Open access

Justyna Warowna, Wojciech Zgłobicki, Grzegorz Gajek, Małgorzata Telecka, Renata Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak and Paweł Zieliński

Abstract

Geomorphosites are among major assets for the development of geotourism. An accurate assessment of spatial distribution of their scientific, educational and economic characteristics provides the basis for appropriate design and management of proposed geoparks. Although the problem of assessing their value for geotourism has been discussed by numerous authors, consistent methodology for the assessment of geomorphosites has not been devised so far. In the present study, we conducted a geotourist evaluation of geomorphosites located within the proposed geopark Vistula River Gap. We assessed a total of 76 sites using 18 assessment criteria. The results indicate not uniform spatial distribution of sites having the highest value. The application of cluster analysis to evaluation results enabled us to distinguish groups of sites with similar characteristics and thus to identify groups of geomorphosites in relation to which various measures should be taken in order to increase the possibilities of their tourist use.

Open access

Łukasz Franczak, Waldemar Kociuba and Grzegorz Gajek

Abstract

River runoff variability in the Scott River catchment in the summer seasons 2012 and 2013 has been presented in comparison to the multiannual river runoff in 1986–2009. Both in particular seasons and in the analysed multiannual, high variability of discharge rate was recorded. In the research periods 2012–2013, a total of 11 952 water stages and 20 flow rates were measured in the analysed cross-section for the determination of 83 daylong discharges. The mean multiannual discharge of the Scott River amounted to 0.96 m3·s−1. The value corresponds to a specific runoff of 94.6 dm3·s−1·km2, and the runoff layer 937 mm. The maximum values of daily discharge amounted to 5.07 m3·s−1, and the minimum values to 0.002 m3·s−1. The highest runoff occurs in the second and third decade of July, and in the first and second decade of August. The regime of the river is determined by a group of factors, and particularly meteorological conditions affecting the intensity of ablation, and consequently river runoff volume. We found a significant correlation (0.60 in 2012 and 0.67 in 2013) between the air temperature and the Scott River discharge related to the Scott Glacier ice melt.