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  • Author: Grzegorz Górski x
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The Chinese One Belt One Road initiative refers to the idea of the so-called New Silk Road. This ancient trade route connected Asia’s Far East with Europe from the earliest times. In various historical periods, this way of trade has often been interrupted by violent events and rivalry of hegemons that are changing in this huge space.

The current OBOR project assumes an important role of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It is an area that includes a large number of countries interested in intensifying cooperation with China and Asian countries.

However, the implementation of this project will certainly take many years. While the countries of this region are expecting quick infrastructural investments, in particular in the area of communication. This is a condition for the future success of the Chinese project.

On the other hand, there are many serious conflicts on the route of the planned route of major transport connections (i.e. in Syria, areas inhabited by Kurds). Without a long-lasting calming of this area, the implementation of this project will not be possible.


The judicial decision of the Constitutional Tribunal from 3rd December 2015 (K/34/15) is the subject of the analysis. In this case the Tribunal considered the matter of the constitutional character of the act on the Constitutional Tribunal from June 2015.

The authors focused on the question of justification of the Tribunal opinion regarding the regulations which were the basis for the appointment of five judges of the Constitutional Tribunal by the Sejm of VII term.

While discussing the justification of the Tribunal the authors emphasize that the Tribunal justified its opinion, according to which it acknowledged the constitutional basis for the appointment of three individuals and questioned the constitutional character of the same regulations in case of two others, in an entirely superficial manner.

The authors present as a significant element of their reasoning the circumstances of adopting by the American Supreme Court in 1803 the adjudication in the Marbury v. Madison case in order to emphasize in this context the weight of rational and thorough argumentation of the grave constitutional matters. Taking the above into account, it is even more clearly visible that in the discussed judicial decision the Constitutional Tribunal limited its reaction to the laconic set of arguments regarding this key matter.


By changing the air and water flow relative rates in the two-phase (air-water) flow through a minichannel, we observe aggregation and partitioning of air bubbles and slugs of different sizes. An air bubble arrangement, which show non-periodic and periodic patterns. The spatiotemporal behaviour was recorded by a digital camera. Multiscale entropy analysis is a method of measuring the time series complexity. The main aim of the paper was testing the possibility of implementation of multiscale entropy for two-phase flow patterns classification. For better understanding, the dynamics of the two-phase flow patterns inside the minichannel histograms and wavelet methods were also used. In particular, we found a clear distinction between bubbles and slugs formations in terms of multiscale entropy. On the other hand, the intermediate region was effected by appearance of both forms in non-periodic and periodic sequences. The preliminary results were confirmed by using histograms and wavelets.


The two-phase flow (water-air) occurring in square minichannel (3x3 mm) has been analysed. In the minichannel it has been observed: bubbly flow, flow of confined bubbles, flow of elongated bubbles, slug flow and semi-annular flow. The time series recorded by laser-phototransistor sensor was analysed using the recurrence quantification analysis. The two coefficients:Recurrence rate (RR) and Determinism (DET) have been used for identification of differences between the dynamics of two-phase flow patterns. The algorithm which has been used normalizes the analysed time series before calculating the recurrence plots.Therefore in analysis the quantitative signal characteristicswas neglected. Despite of the neglect of quantitative signal characteristics the analysis of its dynamics (chart of DET vs. RR) allows to identify the two-phase flow patterns. This confirms that this type of analysis can be used to identify the two-phase flow patterns in minichannels.