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Open access

Grzegorz Żurek and Bartosz Tomaszewski

Low maintenance turf - quality and weed aspects

Turfgrass varieties of Festuca rubra ssp. rubra, F.r. ssp. trichophylla, F. nigrescens, F.arundinacea, F.ovina ssp. vulgaris, F.o. ssp duriuscula, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis as well as mixtures of high and low share of Lolium perenne were tested in low maintenance conditions during 5 years and evaluated for: shoot density, visual merit and for weed infestation. None of tested entries was able to keep initial quality. Only for few of them (mostly varieties of Festuca ovina ssp. duriuscula and F. arundinacea) visual merit after 5 years was still close to the level of minimal user-accepted value (5 in 1-9 scale). The least visual merit values were noted for Poa pratensis and Festuca rubra ssp. rubra. Twenty weed species of different living forms (geophytes, hemicryptophytes and terophytes) were described. Considering general turf performance, low number of weed species and low number of terophytes, turf mixtures with low share of perennial ryegrass could be recommended for low-maintenance turf.

Open access

Danuta Martyniak and Grzegorz Żurek

Abstract

A wide range of seed material from different grass species is necessary to keep high quality grasslands and to create buffer zones between arable lands and forest and to re-cultivate waste or fallow land. Therefore, the aim of our research was to describe elements of seed propagation of some minor grass species. On the basis of field experiments, different spacing and seed quantities were investigated for Beckmannia eruciformis, Cynosurus cristatus and Elytrigia elongata aiming at an optimal seed production. Satisfying seed yields were obtained even at a reduced (50% to 75%) amount of seed quantity, as compared to theoretical (or normal) values, calculated on the basis of number of plants per area unit.

Open access

Andrzej Dziamski, Zofia Stypczyńska and Grzegorz Żurek

Abstract

Our study was designed to describe possibilities to estimate above- and below ground biomass of selected grass species by means of seedling development. Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Festuca rubra L., Lolium perenne L., Poa pratensis L., Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schultes, Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) P.B. were used in our experiment. On the basis of observations and measurements, differences between species, culti-vars and ecotypes were described. Significant and positive correlation was found between root:shoot ratio at seedling phase and at mature plants.

Open access

Anna Sebastjan, Grażyna Dąbrowska, Zofia Ignasiak and Grzegorz Żurek

Ocena motoryki precyzyjnej ręki starszych kobiet o różnym poziomie aktywności ruchowej

Możliwości wykonywania dokładnych i precyzyjnych ruchów manualnych odgrywają decydującą rolę w codziennym funkcjonowaniu człowieka, decydując często o jego przydatności zawodowej. Celem pracy jest ocena poziomu motoryki precyzyjnej ręki starszych kobiet o zróżnicowanym poziomie aktywności ruchowej. Zbadano 153 słuchaczki Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku przy Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim (35 kobiet o wyższym poziomie aktywności i 118 seniorek o niższym poziomie aktywności ruchowej). W badaniach motoryki precyzyjnej ręki wykorzystano test MLS z panelu Wiedeńskiego Zestawu Testów. Wyniki wskazują, że poziom motoryki precyzyjnej ręki słuchaczek UTW we Wrocławiu jest dobry. Nie stwierdzono różnic między wynikami kobiet podejmujących regularną aktywność ruchową. Można przypuszczać, że czynności precyzyjne ręki wykorzystywane w życiu codziennym i wcześniejszej pracy zawodowej podlegają wolniejszym procesom inwolucyjnym niż ogólna sprawność fizyczna.

Open access

Wiesław Golka, Grzegorz Żurek and Jan Radosław Kamiński

Abstract

Short review of grassland restoration techniques has been made with emphasis on the application of newly developed wide-strip overseeding aggregate. Machines currently available on the market are not suitable for all types of soil and grassland conditions. Vredo seeder is useless on muck soils, while Moore aggregate requires herbicide application. Therefore it is not to be applied in organic farming. Construction designated in ITP Kłudzienko (wide-strip overseeder) is a very economical and effective, possible to be used also on muck soils and without assistance of any chemicals. Operation of the machine consists of ‘milling’ of wide (about 10 cm) strips of sod and overseeding of mineral fertilizers and seeds of grasses, legumes and herbs. Cultivator for soil ‘milling’ strips is driven by the tractor PTO. By changing the spacing of strips, an oversown area can be resized from 20% to 40%. The effect of overseeding, evaluated next year exposed the increase of hay yield from 0.8 to 1.2 t · ha-1 of dry matter in the first cut. Such innovative construction is particularly important in dairy farms which are in the need of the best quality feed.

Open access

Karolina Raczyńska, Grzegorz Żurek, Ryszard Barej, Oskar Pelzer and Siegfried Lehrl

Abstract

Introduction. One of the reasons for the lower quality of life of ageing patients has to do with the chronic pain they experience due to disorders of the locomotor and nervous systems. These disorders include osteoarthritis, and in particular degenerative-deforming changes in the spine, which increase the patients’ tendency to fall and to suffer increasingly severe consequences as a result. Financial resources, both in Poland and in many other countries, are mainly allocated to treating patients, and it seems that measures which would help prevent falls are not being taken to a sufficient extent, bearing in mind how important fall prevention is for dealing with old age-related health issues. According to the latest medical expertise, falls can be effectively prevented if multi-disciplinary prevention programmes are implemented. These programmes consist of specially designed and varied exercises using machines and other equipment which help improve joint mobility and restore balance control. The aim to the study was to determine what impact exercises using a mini trampoline had on the functional capacity of a group of middle-aged subjects who participated in the study.

Material and methods. The study was conducted at the KRUS “GRANIT” Farmers’ Rehabilitation Centre in Szklarska Poręba on a group of 80 persons aged 45-55 years (67% of them were women and 33% were men), who completed a mini trampoline exercise programme as part of a 21-day rehabilitation course. Before the subjects started the programme and after they completed it, basic somatic measurements were taken, tests were conducted in order to diagnose the subjects’ functional capacity and the subjective level of pain experienced by the subjects was measured using a pain rating scale (VAS).

Results. It was found that the regular mini trampoline exercises had had an impact on the functional capacity of the subjects and the training had significantly reduced pain in the lumbar region of the spine.

Open access

Alicja Katarzyna Dziuba, Krzysztof Dudek, Krystyna Kobel-Buys, Grzegorz Żurek and Ewa Smajda

Abstract

Introduction: of the study. The elevated muscle tension in lower limbs (LL) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) results in the abnormal pressure on major blood vessels. Consequently, this leads to the disturbances in the circulatory system and a reduction in the temperature in lower limbs. This study assesses thermal effects of a single-session hippotherapy in LL in CP children by means of a non-invasive thermovision technique. Materials and methods: The study included 9 children with CP aged 11,8 ± 4,5 who were treated with hippotherapy. A thermovision camera was used for measurements of the temperature on the surface of lower limbs in anterior, posterior, lateral and medial parts before and after the hippotherapy. Results: The increase in the temperature was observed in the areas of lower limbs which remain directly in contact with the horse’s body. The Wilcoxon test (p<0,01) revealed statistically significant changes in the temperature of the posterior regions in lower limbs. Conclusions: Hippotherapy causes an increase in the temperature of lower limbs in the areas directly involved in contact with the horse’s body. When continuing the study, the factors required for positive effects of the hippotherapy, such as the quality of the therapy and patient’s activation should also be taken into consideration.

Open access

Justyna Lalak, Danuta Martyniak, Agnieszka Kasprzycka, Grzegorz Żurek, Wojciech Moroń, Mariola Chmielewska, Dariusz Wiącek and Jerzy Tys

Abstract

As a fuel, biomass differs in its properties from fossil fuels and acquisition thereof for energy purposes is limited; hence, the ongoing search for new bioenergetically useful plants. The article presents the results of physical and chemical analyses of seven species of perennial grasses: tall wheatgrass, tall wheatgrass ‘Bamar’, brome grass, tall fescue ecotype, reed canary grass, giant miscanthus, and sorghum. The research involved technical and elemental analysis as well as analysis of the ash composition performed in order to determine their potential use for combustion process. The measurement results were compared with those obtained for hard coal and agricultural biomass, which is widely used in the energy industry. The results suggest that perennial grasses can successfully be combusted with similar performance to coal if burned in appropriate combustion installations.

Open access

Aneta Słomka, Elżbieta Kuta, Agnieszka Płażek, Franciszek Dubert, Iwona Żur, Ewa Dubas, Przemysław Kopeć and Grzegorz Żurek

Miscanthus ×giganteus Greef et Deu. (Poaceae), a hybrid of Miscanthus sinensis and M. sacchariflorus native to Japan, is an ornamental and a highly lignocellulosic bioenergy crop, cultivated in the European Union as an alternative source of energy. This grass reproduces exclusively vegetatively, by rhizomes or via expensive in vitro micropropagation. The present study was aimed at finding the barriers that prevent sexual seed production, based on detailed embryological analyses of the whole generative cycle, including microsporogenesis, pollen viability, megasporogenesis, female gametophyte development, and embryo and endosperm formation. Sterility of M. ×giganteus results from abnormal development of both male and female gametophytes. Disturbed microsporogenesis (laggard chromosomes, univalents, micronuclei) was further highlighted by low pollen staining. The frequency of stainable pollen ranged from 13.9% to 55.3% depending on the pollen staining test, and no pollen germination was observed either in vitro or in planta. The wide range of pollen sizes (25.5-47.6 μm) clearly indicated unbalanced pollen grain cytology, which evidently affected pollen germination. Only 9.7% of the ovules developed normally. No zygotes nor embryos were found in any analyzed ovules. Sexual reproduction of M. ×giganteus is severely hampered by its allotriploid (2n=3x=57) nature. Hybrid sterility, a strong postzygotic barrier, prevents sexual reproduction and, therefore, seed formation in this taxon.