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  • Author: Grażyna Topolska x
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Grażyna Topolska, Anna Gajda and Urszula Imińska


Estimations of honeybee colony winter losses in Poland have been carried out at Warsaw University of Life Sciences since 2008 (in 2008 they concerned the two winters of 2006/07 and 2007/08), using a preliminary questionnaire in 2008 and the standardized COLOSS questionnaire since 2009. During the first years of the survey, concerning the period of autumn 2006 - spring 2012, the multimode method of data collection was used, and beekeepers sent in between 393 and 769 questionnaires a year. Overall, the number of participants increased, but in particular voivodeships it fluctuated. The estimated overall winter colony loss in Poland was low during the winter of 2006/07 (10%) and quite low during the winter of 2008/09 (11.5%). In other years it was substantially higher reaching 15.2% in 2007/08, 14.8% 2009/10, as much as 18.3% in 2010/11 and then down to 15.8% in 2011/12. A similar pattern of average losses was observed, but each year, excluding the winter of 2010/11, at least 50% of beekeepers reported acceptable losses of only up to 10%. During the analysis of the spatial pattern of overall losses, some data which could blur the pattern were eliminated. The results suggest that such climatic factors as a warm autumn but also high summer precipitation, followed by low winter temperatures influenced the spatial distribution of the losses.