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Open access

Karolina Zapala, Grazyna Szymczak and Magdalena Wojciak-Kosior

Abstract

Cimicifuga racemosa, is a plant with a diverse and long history of medicinal use. Caffeic acid, bioactive compound, which often occurs with other polyphenols can influence the biological activity of this plant. The aim of our work was quantitative analysis of caffeic acid in roots and rhizomes of two varieties of C. racemosa. Analysis was performed by HPLC method. The extracts were separated on C18 reversed-phase column using mixture of methanol, water and formic acid (25:75:0.5 v/v/v) as a mobile phase. The flow rate of eluent was 1.0 ml·min-1. The obtained validation parameters such as linearity, linear regression equation and precision expressed as a relative standard deviation were adequate for quantitative determination. Caffeic acid was found in all tested extracts. The highest total amount of caffeic acid was determined in C. racemosa var. racemosa (255.3 μg·g-1) while its concentration in C. racemosa var. cordifolia was significantly lower (213.0 μg·g-1).

Open access

Grażyna Grelowska, Eugeniusz Kozaczka, Dominika Witos-Okrasińska and Wojciech Szymczak

Abstract

This paper is mainly aimed at presentation of an impact of environmental conditions on imaging accuracy by using hydro-acoustic systems in waters of a high non-uniformity of spatial distribution of hydrological parameters. Impact of refraction on erroneous estimation of range, in case of wave radiation into water under a large angle, like in side sonars or multi-beam echo-sounders, is especially important. In this paper seasonal changes in sound speed and its impact on acoustic beam refraction is discussed. And, examples which illustrate errors in determination of side sonar range occurred during last investigations carried out in Gdansk Bay waters are presented.

Open access

Grażyna Grelowska, Eugeniusz Kozaczka, Sławomir Kozaczka and Wojciech Szymczak

Abstract

Study of the sea noise has been a subject of interest for many years. The first works in this scope were published at the turn of the twentieth century by Knudsen (Knudsen et al., 1948) and G. Wenz (Wenz, 1962). Disturbances called “shipping noise” are one of the important components of the sea noise.

In this work the results of an experimental research of underwater noise produced by a small ship of a classic propulsion are presented. A linear receiving antenna composed of two orthogonal components was used in the investigation. Identification of the main sources of acoustic waves related with the ship was achieved. In addition, the intensity of the wave was measured. The research was performed in conditions of the shallow sea.

Open access

Magdalena Krajewska, Małgorzata Szymczak-Żyła and Grażyna Kowalewska

Abstract

Pigments (chloropigments-a and carotenoids) in sediments and macroalgae samples, collected in Hornsund, in July 2015 and July 2016, were analysed (HPLC) in this work. In spite of the aerobic conditions and the periodic intensive solar irradiation in the Arctic environment, neither of which favour pigment preservation in water column and surface sediments, our results indicate that these compounds can provide information about phytoplankton composition, primary production and environmental conditions in this region. The sum of chloropigments-a, a marker of primary production, in the Hornsund sediments varied from 0.40 to 14.97 nmol/g d.w., while the sum of carotenoids ranged from 0.58 to 8.08 nmol/g d.w. Pheophorbides-a and pyropheophorbides-a made up the highest percentage in the sum of chloropigments-a in these sediments, supplying evidence for intensive zooplankton and/or zoobenthos grazing. Among the carotenoids, fucoxanthin and its derivatives (19’-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin and 19’-hexanoyloxy-4-ketofucoxanthin) contributed the highest percentage, which points to the occurrence mainly of diatoms and/or haptophytes in the water. The pigment markers show that the input of macroalgae to the total biomass could be considerable only in the intertidal zone.

Open access

Bożena Denisow, Sebastian Antoń and Grażyna Szymczak

Summary

Urban areas have a specific ecological environment and may help to sustain local pollinator populations by the cultivation of different ornamental plants with entomophilous flowers. This yearlong study examined the flowering pattern, abundance of flowering, pollen production as well as insect visitation of two cultivars of the ornamental shrub Potentilla fruticosa L. (‘Maanleys’ and ‘Blink’), grown in Lublin; a city in south-eastern Poland. P. fruticosa ‘Maanleys’ bloomed from the middle of May to the first decade of September and P. fruticosa ‘Blink’ from June until October. The pattern of diurnal flowering was similar for both cultivars and showed plasticity in the season. Flowers opened most intensively in the morning hours, and 80 - 90% of the daily installment of newly opened flowers expanded by 8.00 h GMT +2h. A delay in the peak of diurnal flowering was noted between the spring/summer and summer/autumn periods. The most intense blooming fell in the 2nd month of flowering. The mass of pollen produced per flower depended on both the number of anthers and the efficiency of archesporial tissues. The pollen output varied from 1.4 to 7.2 mg per 10 flowers (‘Maanleys’) and from 2.6 to 4.5 mg per 10 flowers (‘Blink’). The mass of pollen produced per individual shrub was substantially related to the abundance of blooming. The average estimated pollen productivity in the full flowering phase was low; 1 g (‘Maanleys’) and 1.5 g (‘Blink’) per 10 m2 of shrub crown. The flowers of Potentilla fruticosa attracted numerous insects, mainly solitary bees (33 - 43%), dipterans (31 - 42%), lepidopterans (4 - 14%), bumblebees (3 - 15%), and honey bees (3 - 4%). The Potentilla fruticosa ‘Maanleys’ and ‘Blink’ are propagated for specific ornamental arrangements and due to a long flowering period may be used in small urban courtyards for both decorative value and as a pollen delivering plants.

Open access

Eugeniusz Kozaczka, Grażyna Grelowska, Sławomir Kozaczka and Wojciech Szymczak

ABSTRACT

The aim of the paper is to analyze data obtained during sounding the Gdansk Bay sea bed by means of the parametric echo-sounder. The accuracy of the sea bottom structure investigation needs correct configuration of research equipment and proper calibration of peripheral devices (GPS, heading sensor, MRU-Z motion sensor and navigation instruments which provide necessary data to bathymetrical measurement system, enabling its work with full capability. The parametric sub-bottom profiler delivers two types of data which include different information: envelope and pure echo signal sampled without processing. The first is used to present echograms in real time and the second one is stored during sounding and the obtained data can be analyzed by using post-processing software. Differences in the results are presented and discussed. And, are described also criteria taken into account during determination of the measurement areas and selection of different configurations of the software according to the information to be obtained from trials. Complementary information can be achieved from processing the data by means of the procedures offered by Matlab software, which allows for a clear 3D presentation of the results. The consideration are illustrated by echograms taken in the natural conditions

Open access

Grażyna Grelowska, Eugeniusz Kozaczka and Wojciech Szymczak

Abstract

The article presents and analyses the data recorded during sounding of the Gdansk Bay seabed with the aid of a parametric echosounder and a side-scan sonar. The accuracy of seabed structure examination, as a condition for obtaining valuable results, requires correct configuration of echolocation devices and proper calibration of peripheral devices, such as the survey unit geographical position sensor - GPS, the navigation unit, the MRU-Z sensor of pitch, roll and heave, and the sound velocity meter, which deliver the data to the bathymetric measurement system. Parametric seabed profilers deliver two types of data: the envelope, and the detailed echo signal without processing. The envelope is used for data visualisation in the form of online echograms, while the echo signal is stored for further analyses, to be performed using dedicated software or, after relevant conversion, in arbitrary programming environment1. The presented data analysis is illustrated by selected sample images recorded by the parametric echosounder and the side-scan sonar during Gdansk Bay sounding.

Open access

Eugeniusz Kozaczka, Grazyna Grelowska, Sławomir Kozaczka and Wojciech Szymczak

Abstract

The paper contains results of a in situ research main task of which was to detect objects buried, partially or completely, in the sea bottom. Object detecting technologies employing acoustic wave sources based on nonlinear interaction of elastic waves require application of parametric sound sources. Detection of objects buried in the sea bottom with the use of classic hydroacoustic devices such as the sidescan sonar or multibeam echosounder proves ineffective. Wave frequencies used in such devices are generally larger than tens of kHz. This results in the fact that almost the whole acoustic energy is reflected from the bottom. On the other hand, parametric echosounders radiate waves with low frequency and narrow beam patterns which ensure high spatial resolution and allows to penetrate the sea bottom to depths of the order of tens of meters. This allows to detect objects that can be interesting, among other things, from archaeological or military point of view.

Open access

Grażyna Grelowska, Eugeniusz Kozaczka, Sławomir Kozaczka and Wojciech Szymczak

Abstract

The main goal of this paper is to describe the results of sounding the Gdansk Bay sea bed by using a SES- 2000 Standard parametric sub-bottom profiler. Quality of data obtained during trials depends inter alia on a proper location of transducer array to reduce influence of pitch, roll and heave motions as well as ship self noise (resulting from bubbles due to propeller and flow around hull, vibration generated by main engine and auxiliary devices). Furthermore, calibration of complementary units such as GPS, heading sensor, MRU-Z motion sensor and navigation devices make sea-bed investigating system capable of working with its whole capability. Results of so prepared surveys have been presented and discussed. They contain also an elaborated map of Gdansk Bay with preliminarily classified sea-bed materials and description of most interesting areas.