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Open access

Grażyna Silska

Summary

Introduction: Polish oilseed and flaxseed collection is a source of genotypes containing very high amounts of α-linolenic acid. Objective: The objective of the study is to test the seeds for the fat content and fatty acids composition in the oil pressed from the 9 tested accessions of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Our goal is to promote the Polish flax collection, which seeds are unique as one of the richest sources of α-linolenic acid. Methods: Assays to determine the content of fat and fatty acids composition in linseed oil were performed at the IHAR-PIB Biochemical Laboratory in Poznań. The fat content was determined by infrared analysis (calibration performed on the basis of seed sample at IHAR-PIB in Poznań) by means of a NIRS 6500 spectrophotometer with a reflection detector within the range of 400-2500 nm. The composition of fatty acids was determined by means of a method proposed by Byczyńska and Krzymański (1969), based on gas chromatography of methyl esters of fatty acids contained in linseed oil. The following varieties of flax were investigated: Tabare (INF00111), Szegedi 30 (INF00427), Olin (INF 00444), Redwood 65 (INF00523), Dufferin (INF00540), AC Mc Duff (INF00648), Alfonso Inta (INF00683), Olinette (INF00687), Royale (INF00689). Results: The content of α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3) in evaluated genotypes of flax ranged from 48.9 (Royale) to 59.9% (Alfonso Inta). Content of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2) in evaluated genotypes of flax ranged from 12.4 (Tabare) to 17.1% (AC Mc Duff). The content of oleic acid (OA, C18:1) of 9 accession of flax ranged from 17.1 (Alfonso Inta) to 26.7% (Royale). The content of stearic acid in evaluated genotypes of flax ranged from 2.3 (Alfonso Inta) to 5.0% (Tabare, Szegedi 30) and the content of palmitic acid ranged from 4.7 (Dufferin) to 6.0% (Olin). The content of fat ranged from 42.7 (Olin) to 52.0% (AC Mc Duff). The fatty acid ratio n-6/n-3 ranged from 0.23/1 (Tabare) to 0.32/1 (AC Mc Duff).

Open access

Grażyna Silska and Jan Bocianowski

Summary

Introduction: The Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP) is involved in the protection of the genetic resources of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). In 1998–2000, the INF&MP conducted research titled “Collection and evaluation of flax and hemp cultivars and ecotypes”. Poland participates in the programme, financed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development because our country has signed the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Objective: The objective of the research was the evaluation of the genetic resources of 23 accessions of flax. The characteristics data for flax accessions are presented according to traditional methodology and according to the methodology for developing the International Flax Data Base.

Methods: Field trials were carried out in 1998–2000 in the experimental station in Wojciechów, located in the Opolskie region. The objective was to evaluate the morphological traits, biological features and seed yield of 23 accessions of flax. The research included the following genotypes of Linum usitatissimum L. according to type of use: 12 linseed varieties, three landraces, one accession of unknown type of use, six fibre varieties and one genotype of both types of use.

Results: The total plant length of Linum was short for 12 accessions of flax, medium short (7) and medium (4). The technical length was short (17 accessions), medium short (3) and medium (3). The stem thickness for all accessions was medium, i.e. between 1.2 and 2.0 mm. The panicle length was short (12 accessions), medium (10) and long (1). A number of primary lateral branches of the stems of all flax accessions was medium (4–8 branches). The 1000 seed weight was low for 21 accessions of flax and very low in two genotypes: Currong and UKR 97 104. The size of the corolla (flower) was small (9), medium (12) and large (2) – varieties: Martin and Maxigold. The petal colour of the corolla was blue (11), light blue (8) and white (4) – Crystal, Hella, Kreola, Achay.

Conclusions: Morphological characterisation of the stamen showed that accession K-1390 was segregating because the anther colour was bluish and greish. The highest resistance to lodging was observed for Abby, Peak and Olinette. The following accessions of flax were very resistant to Fusarium: Martin, UKR 97269, Kijewskij and Ukraińskij 3; resistant to Fusarium: Abby, Peak, Olinette, Crystal, Gold Merchant, Currong and Ukraińskij 2. The following varieties were very susceptible to Fusarium: Hella, Kreola, Maxigold and Achay. These varieties should not be used for cross breeding. The best average seed yield in 1998–2000 in Wojciechów was found in the following accessions of flax: Abby (191%), Gold Merchant (162%), Currong (161%), Olinette (151%), PEAK (148%), UKR 97269 (148%), Crystal (138%), Ukraiński 3 (132%), Martin (130%), Pacific (110%) and Ukraiński 2 (103%). These varieties are particularly valuable for flax breeders.

Open access

Marcin Praczyk, Krzysztof Heller, Grażyna Silska and Przemysław Baraniecki

Summary

The objective of the study was genetic and breeding screening of selected varieties and hybrids of oil flax for in-seed cadmium fixing ability. Seven parental varieties as well as nineteen F1 and F2 hybrids were analyzed. The varieties were crossed in di-allelic scheme, according to the Griffing method II. Significant differences were found in the activity of fixing cadmium from the soil between analysed flax parental forms and hybrids. High variability of tested genotypes, calculated by the variance coefficient, was observed in F1 generation. The variability of tested genotypes in the F2 generation was two times lower. The analysis of general combining ability (GCA) showed that Chinese cultivar Shanxi reduced significantly the fixing cadmium from the soil in combinations of F1 generation crossing. However, the effects of the specific combining ability (SCA) of tested hybrids to reduce the cadmium content in seeds were statistically insignificant. The analysis of genetic components variance showed no significance both in domination and cumulative genes which suggests a complex inheritance pattern of the tested trait.