The sociology of morality as an empirical science explores the morality from its social side of the formation and functioning (morality as a social construct), from the social conditions of all the phenomena that create the field of morality. It also diagnoses the social conditions of its development, differentiation or regress.
A midwife is an independent medical profession regulated by law. It is treated as a mission, a profession of public trust. The independence of midwife expresses in the professional activities which are performed in accordance with professional competences. Moreover, it is a universal feature of the midwife profession. International and national regulations are important in process of shaping the legal status of the midwife profession. Due to its nature, this profession requires from the midwives continuous, lifelong learning and professional improvement. National and European legislation on midwife profession indicates professional functions which are characteristic for this profession. Knowledge of professional legislation and its conscious application in professional practice is a basic obligation in the midwife’s practice. Lack of knowledge in this regard has serious legal and moral consequences, as well as might pose a risk to the patient safety. This study contains an analysis of the legislation that determine the professional functions of midwives and influence the rules of the professional performance for midwifery profession.
Mariola Kicia, Agnieszka Skurzak, Krzysztof Wiktor, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus and Henryk Wiktor
Miscarriage is defined as an adverse and unexpected termination of pregnancy before the completion of 22nd week of gestation. Currently, abortion is the most common early reproductive failure. In Poland, more than 40 000 pregnant women a year lose pregnancy due to various reasons. There are many reports in literature on the risk of somatic consequences of miscarriage, while extra-somatic complications resulting from exposure to the strong influence of anxiety and stress, such as, for example: depression and psychosomatic disorders have not been paid too much attention to, yet. Abortion is accompanied by stress and a lot of negative emotions, such as anxiety. They may intensify both due to hospitalization and the need to implement treatment. These negative emotions destroy cognitive power of women, depriving them of their confidence, they can exacerbate the sense of danger, lead to stress and hinder treatment.
Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus, Marta Zarajczyk, Aleksandra Jakubowska, Agnieszka Bień and Ewa Rzońca
Introduction. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder happening to pregnant women. Some. 3-5% of all pregnant women in Poland are diagnosed with the condition. Glucose tolerance disorders or gestational diabetes recur in about 30% of women during their second (or next) pregnancy. Controlling diabetes involves many new responsibilities and sacrifices that may be difficult to bear for a pregnant woman.
Aim. The aim of the present study was to examine the most common problems among pregnant women with gestational diabetes
Material and methods. The study was conducted between 2015 and 2016. The authors used a diagnostic survey on 120 pregnant women with diabetes who were patients in gestational pathology and conservative gynecological treatment departments and diabetic outpatient clinics in Lublin. The χ2 test of independence was used to examine correlations between socio-demographic factors and problems experienced by pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Results. Problems with keeping a blood glucose monitoring diary were reported by women from cities different than province capitals (75%). Childless women reported problems with pricking their finger multiple times a day (60%). Insulin injections were perceived as a GDM-related problem mostly by women aged 31-35 (41.2%), women in their second pregnancy (61.8%) and women with more than one child (47.1%). Frequent visits to the doctor were perceived as a problem mostly by women aged less than 26 (42.3%), women living in rural areas (57.7%), women with higher education (84.6%), women in their first pregnancy (61.5%) and women without children (73.1%). The two last groups additionally indicated psychological burden (84.2% and 78.9%, respectively). Anxiety about the occurrence of type 2 diabetes was mainly expressed by women aged 26-30 (35.3%) and those in their second pregnancy (52.9%), whilst working women expressed concern for their own lives (78.6%).
Conclusions. There is a correlation between selected problems experienced by pregnant women with GDM and socio-demographic variables such as: age, place of residence, education, professional activity and number of pregnancies and children. The results obtained suggest that there is a need for educating women about the most frequent problems that accompany pregnancy with GDM.
Agnieszka Bień, Kozak2 Rzońca, Marta Zarajczyk, Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus and Agnieszka Kozak
Introduction. Breastfeeding is the optimal method of nourishing newborns and infants, as provided in guidelines and recommendations issued by both maternal and child health organizations and associations. For this reason, breastfeeding should be promoted and supported through educating the population. Various media outlets (television, radio, the Internet, press) have become an integral part of people’s daily life and an important source of information on health.
Aim. The present study aimed at determining the role of the mass media in the promotion of breastfeeding.
Material and methods. The study was conducted between January and April 2015 on 262 women. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The researchers used a self-designed questionnaire. The software used for databases and statistical analysis was STATISTICA 9.1 (StatSoft, Poland).
Results. A statistical analysis has shown that married women (p=0.00168), women with higher education (p=0.04007), women who had their own businesses (p=0.04482) and those who had given birth to one child (p=0.00093) stated that information on breastfeeding was available in the media. The women surveyed pointed to the media (56.13%) as the source of information on breastfeeding, while the Internet (82.07%) was the most popular medium used by the respondents to look for information on breastfeeding. The participants believed that the media should focus on promoting the benefits of breastfeeding for the child (94.27%).
Conclusions. The media are the most popular source of information on breastfeeding. The media should promote breastfeeding mainly through providing information on the benefits for the child. The Internet is the most popular medium to look for information on breastfeeding.
Agnieszka Skurzak, Mariola Kicia, Krzysztof Wiktor, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus and Henryk Wiktor
This paper is a review of the literature concerning the importance of social support during pregnancy. Being pregnant is a special event in every woman’s life, since it is associated with physical and mental changes. In addition to being a physiological event, pregnancy creates a burden for the body and induces stress. Pregnant women tend to suffer from fear of the unknown, especially regarding: baby, themselves, course of delivery, the need for a new role – of a mother, economic, professional, emotional situations and relationship with partner. The diagnosis of high-risk pregnancy and the need for hospitalization increase the incidence of negative emotions and experiences such as: permanent anxiety about the child’s life, anger, sadness, doubts about the diagnosis, fear of pregnancy complications, frustration and dissatisfaction with the implementation of the functions of maternal concerns during the stay in the hospital. Anxiety and fear that appear during pregnancy affect the attitude of women in pregnancy and after childbirth.
Various authors frequently use the term “pregnancy-specific stress”. There is a relationship between concerns, stress in the mother during pregnancy and lifestyle, duration of pregnancy, and the possible complications during intrauterine and neonatal life. Social support significantly influences the quality of coping with stress in pregnant women. If a pregnant woman receives strong social support from her network, the negative emotions and concerns would be reduced. Receiving support also boosts the chances of successful pregnancy completion. The people from the immediate social network of a pregnant woman, like their partner, spouse, family, friends, midwife, doctor, are the most vital source of support.
Joanna Piechowska, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus, Agnieszka Bień and Agnieszka Pieczykolan
Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the state of knowledge of women using health services on the midwife’s tasks in the primary health care.
Material and methods. The research was conducted online in the period from February to March 2018 among women receiving health services in primary health care. The study was attended by 200 respondents aged 18-60 – they were informed about the voluntariness, anonymity of participation in research and the use of results only for scientific purposes. The diagnostic survey method was used for the research using the author’s questionnaire.
Results. Most of the respondents knew their family physician (87.5%) and only half of the respondents knew their midwife (50%). The midwife was mainly associated with childbirth and neonatal care. In the minds of women, the midwife can conduct education (72%), but most of them only knew about the possibility of counseling in the field of pregnancy, postpartum period, early motherhood.
Conclusions. 1. Women receiving healthcare services have incomplete knowledge of who their physician, midwife and nurse are in primary health care. 2. In the consciousness of women, there is the idea that midwives (including midwives of primary health care) deal only with pregnant women and after childbirth, but they do not know that midwives are involved in education regarding the prevention of gynecological diseases. 3. In reference to the low level of public knowledge about primary health care midwife’s competence, it is necessary to conduct activities aimed at promoting the midwife profession and raising public awareness in this area.
Justyna Krysa, Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus, Agnieszka M. Bień, Ewa Rzońca and Marta Zarajczyk
Prenatal education in the form of antenatal classes, referred to as School of Birth in Poland, aims at preparing both pregnant women and their partners for parenthood, on theoretical and practical basis. This is achieved by providing women with information on safe pregnancy, labor and puerperium, developing healthy behaviors and preparing parents to look after the newborn/infant. The course program covers all psychophysical issues related to pregnancy, labor, puerperium and early stages of the child’s life. The objective is to strengthen the health of mothers and children, alleviate pregnancy-related anxiety and fear, decrease the number of premature births and reduce the perinatal mortality rate. However, the scope of potential advantages of Schools of Birth depends not only on individual traits of the participants, but also on the engagement of professionals who teach the courses and the type of the school.