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  • Author: Grażyna Cacak-Pietrzak x
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Renata Różyło, Dariusz Dziki, Urszula Gawlik-Dziki, Grażyna Cacak-Pietrzak, Antoni Miś and Stanisław Rudy


In this paper, we propose for the first time a description (regression and canonical form) of the changes in the physical properties of several types of natural gluten-free bread produced with different amounts of water in the recipe. Five types of bread, made of corn flour (100%), rice flour (100%), corn and rice flour (50:50%), buckwheat, corn, and rice flour (30:35:35%), were investigated. It has been noticed that, by changing the amount of water addition to the dough, it is possible to significantly affect the quality of different types of natural gluten-free bread. Addition of water from 80 to 120% of flour mass, resulted in significant changes in the quality of bread. Bread made of corn flour required the largest amount of water addition (120%); however, bread made of rice flour was characterized by a better quality with the lowest amount of water addition (80%), while bread made of corn and rice flour and buckwheat, corn, and rice flour were characterized by the best quality when the amount of water addition was 90%. Changes in the physical properties of bread were described as second degree polynomial regression equations or by linear regression and the canonical form was proposed.