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Goran Kos, Predrag Brlek, Kristijan Meic and Kresimir Vidovic

Abstract

In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps) and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

Open access

Biljana Bozic Nedeljkovic, Goran Loncar, Tjasa Vizin, Zoran Radojicic, Vera Popovic Brkic and Janko Kos

Summary

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of Cystatin C (CysC) to biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mass, and to evaluate its prognostic significance in elderly males with chronic heart failure (CHF).

Methods: A prospective cohort study was executed on sixtyeight males (mean age 68±7 years) with mild to moderate CHF, together with 19 of corresponding age- and body mass index-matched healthy individuals who underwent cardio vascular, bone mineral density (BMD), and body com position assessment. Biochemical assessment of all subjects included NT-pro-BNP, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), CysC, and biochemical markers of bone turnover including osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), β-CrossLaps (β-CTx), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL).

Results: Serum CysC was significantly increased in males with CHF in comparison to healthy control ones. A significant positive association was found between CysC levels and OC in males with CHF, while OC and β-CTx increased in increasing CysC tertiles. In multivariate regression analysis, OC and smoking were a significant determinant of CysC in males with CHF. Level of CysC was found to be positively associated with an increased fatal risk in males with CHF.

Conclusions: Serum osteocalcin is an independent predictor of CysC level in elderly males with CHF. Higher CysC level showed a negative relation to survival and bone loss in males with CHF. Further research is needed to confirm the potential role of CysC in the crosstalk between heart, kidney, bone, and energy metabolism in CHF.

Open access

Biljana Bozic Nedeljkovic, Goran Loncar, Tjasa Vizin, Zoran Radojicic, Vera Popovic Brkic and Janko Kos

Summary

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of Cystatin C (CysC) to biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mass, and to evaluate its prognostic significance in elderly males with chronic heart failure (CHF).

Methods: A prospective cohort study was executed on sixtyeight males (mean age 68±7 years) with mild to moderate CHF, together with 19 of corresponding age- and body mass index-matched healthy individuals who underwent cardio vascular, bone mineral density (BMD), and body com position assessment. Biochemical assessment of all subjects included NT-pro-BNP, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), CysC, and biochemical markers of bone turnover including osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), β-CrossLaps (β-CTx), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL).

Results: Serum CysC was significantly increased in males with CHF in comparison to healthy control ones. A significant positive association was found between CysC levels and OC in males with CHF, while OC and β-CTx increased in increasing CysC tertiles. In multivariate regression analysis, OC and smoking were a significant determinant of CysC in males with CHF. Level of CysC was found to be positively associated with an increased fatal risk in males with CHF.

Conclusions: Serum osteocalcin is an independent predictor of CysC level in elderly males with CHF. Higher CysC level showed a negative relation to survival and bone loss in males with CHF. Further research is needed to confirm the potential role of CysC in the crosstalk between heart, kidney, bone, and energy metabolism in CHF.