Pēteris Tretjakovs, Juris Hofmanis, Dace Hofmane, Gita Krieviņa, Leons Blumfelds, Vitolds Mackēvičs, Aivars Lejnieks and Guntis Bahs
The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of chemerin, myeloperoxidase (MPO), fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1), and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) in acquired aortic valve (AoV) stenosis patients to determine correlations between the studied cellular factors, and also clarify the predictive values of these factors as biomarkers in AoV stenosis. AoV stenosis patients were classified into three groups: 17 patients with mild AoV stenosis; 19 with moderate and 15 with severe AoV stenosis. Twenty-four subjects without AoV stenosis were selected as a control group. Our findings suggest that AoV stenosis might be associated with increased chemerin, TrxR1, MPO, and FGF-21 levels in plasma. Moreover, these factors and also MMP-9 already reached statistically significantly elevated levels in the early stages of AoV stenosis, but MPO levels were more pronounced in patients with moderate and severe AoV stenosis. Chemerin was correlated with all of the studied cytokines; TrxR1 and MMP-9 were correlated with several other cellular factors. Our findings (by ROC analysis) suggest that MPO and chemerin might serve as specific and sensitive biomarkers for AoV stenosis without grading the severity, but, in relation to mild AoV stenosis, TrxR1, FGF-21, and MMP-9 also reached good or moderate levels as biomarkers. The cellular factors might serve as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in AoV stenosis patients, while chemerin and MPO may be more powerful.
Pēteris Tretjakovs, Antra Jurka, Inga Bormane, Indra Miķelsone, Dace Reihmane, Gita Krieviņa, Iveta Marksa, Karlīna Elksne, Jurijs Verbovenko and Guntis Bahs
Neopterin, cellular adhesion molecules and myeolperoxidase in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris
Recent data indicate that the serum level of neopterin, a marker of inflammation and immune modulator secreted by monocytes/macrophages, is elevated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and seems to be a prognostic marker for major cardiovascular events. Soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAMs) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels are also related to ACS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in serum levels of neopterin, sCAMs and MPO between coronary artery disease and metabolic syndrome (CAD-MetS) patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris (SAP, UAP), and to clarify the relationships between neopterin and other biomarkers. The study included 60 patients with CAD-MetS who were classified into two groups, 30 patients with SAP and 30 patients with UAP. Twenty healthy subjects were selected as controls (C). Serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sE-selectin and MPO levels were measured by Luminex xMAP technology, and serum neopterin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: Serum levels of neopterin, MPO, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were significantly higher in patients with UAP in comparison with the group of healthy controls (P < 0.05). Patients with SAP also had higher levels of these biomarkers than those in healthy controls (P < 0.05), except for sE-selectin. The biomarker level did not differ between the two patient groups, except for MPO, which was significantly higher in the USP group (P < 0.05). Neopterin was significantly correlated only with sVCAM-1 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CAD-Met patients with SAP had more apparent raised levels of serum sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, simultaneously with higher MPO and neopterin concentrations, in comparison to those in healthy subjects. However, UAP is also associated with more substantial changes in MPO and significantly increased sE-selectin levels. Neopterin concentration was had a close correlation only with sVCAM-1.
Ieva Kalere, Ilze Konrāde, Anna Proskurina, Sabīne Upmale, Tatjana Zaķe, Normunds Limba, Gita Krieviņa, Aivars Lejnieks and Pēteris Tretjakovs
There is a close relationship between melatonin as a circadian regulator and insulin, glucagon and somatostatin production. This study aimed to describe subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients that may benefit from melatonin clock-targeting properties. The study involved 38 participants: 26 T2DM patients, and 12 participants without diabetes in the control group. Subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Standard biochemical venous sample testing was performed, and a sample of saliva was collected for melatonin testing. Melatonin concentration in participants without obesity (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2) was significantly higher than in obese participants: 13.2 (6.4; 23.50) pg/ml vs 5.9 (0.78; 13.1) pg/ml, p = 0.035. Subjects with BMI 30 kg/m2 had a significantly higher PSQI score than non-obese subjects: 7 (4.5; 10) vs 5.5 (3; 7), p = 0.043. T2DM patients showed significantly lower levels of melatonin than the control group: 6.1 (0.78; 12.2) pg/ml vs 17.8 (8.2; 25.5) pg/ml, p = 0.003. T2DM patients using short-acting insulin analogues showed a significantly higher PSQI score than patients not using insulin: 9 (6; 10) vs 6 (3; 8), respectively (p = 0.025). Poor sleep quality was more prevalent in patients with diabetic retinopathy than in those without this complication (p = 0.031). Lower melatonin levels were detected in T2DM and obese patients. Furthermore, poor sleep quality was observed in T2DM patients using short-acting insulin analogues and those with diabetic retinopathy, and obese individuals.