Gianni Turcato, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Gianfranco Cervellin, Elisabetta Zorzi, Valentina Sivero, Gian Luca Salvagno, Andrea Tenci and Giuseppe Lippi
To investigate the association between both neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and 30-day mortality in patients hospitalized for an episode of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).
439 patients admitted to emergency department (ED) for an episode of ADHF. Clinical history, demographic, clinical and laboratory data recorded at ED admission and then correlated with 30-day mortality.
45/439 (10.3%) patients died within 30 days from ED admission. The median values of NLR (4.1 vs 11.7) and PLR (159.1 vs 285.9) were significantly lower in survivors than in patients who died. The area under the ROC curve of NLR was significantly higher than that of the neutrophil count (0.76 vs 0.59; p<0.001), whilst the AUC of PLR was significantly better than that of the platelet count (0.71 vs 0.51; p<0.001). In univariate analysis, both NLR and PLR were significantly associated with 30-day. In the fully-adjusted multivariate model, NLR (odds ratio, 3.63) and PLR (odds ratio, 3.22) remained independently associated with 30-day mortality after ED admission.
Routine assessment of NLR and PLR at ED admission may be a valuable aid to complement other conventional measures for assessing the medium-short risk of ADHF patients.
Gianni Turcato, Gianfranco Cervellin, Antonio Bonora, Danieli Prati, Elisabetta Zorzi, Giorgio Ricci, Gian Luca Salvagno, Antonio Maccagnani and Giuseppe Lippi
The usual history of chronic heart failure (HF) is characterized by frequent episodes of acute decompensation (ADHF), needing urgent management in the emergency department (ED). Since the diagnostic accuracy of routine laboratory tests remains quite limited for predicting short-term mortality in ADHF, this retrospective study investigated the potential significance of combining red blood cell distribution width (RDW) with other conventional tests for prognosticating ADHF upon ED admission. We conducted a retrospective study including visits for episodes of ADHF recorded in the ED of the Uni versity Hospital of Verona throughout a 4-year period. Demo - graphic and clinical features were recorded upon patient presentation. All patients were subjected to standard Chest X-ray, electrocardiogram (ECG) and laboratory testing in - cluding creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), complete blood cell count (CBC), sodium, chloride, potassium and RDW. The 30-day overall mortality after ED presentation was defined as primary endpoint. Results: The values of sodium, creatinine, BNP and RDW were higher in patients who died than in those who survived, whilst hypochloremia was more frequent in patients who died than in those who survived. The multivariate model, incorporating these parameters, displayed a modest efficiency for predicting 30-day mortality after ED admission (AUC, 0.701; 95% CI, 0.662-0.738; p=0.001). Notably, the inclusion of RDW in the model significantly enhanced prediction efficiency, with an AUC of 0.723 (95% CI, 0.693-0.763; p<0.001). These results were confirmed with net reclassification improvement (NRI) analysis, showing that combination of RDW with conventional laboratory tests resulted in a much better prediction performance (net reclassification index, 0.222; p=0.001). The results of our study show that prognostic assessment of ADHF patients in the ED can be significantly improved by combining RDW with other conventional laboratory tests.
Gianni Turcato, Gianfranco Cervellin, Gian Luca Salvagno, Eleonora Zaccaria, Giuseppe Bartucci, Marco David, Antonio Bonora, Massimo Zannoni, Giorgio Ricci and Giuseppe Lippi
Background: Universally accepted and validated instruments for predicting the outcome of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with severe dyspnoea do not exist so far, nor are they regularly used by the emergency physicians. This study hence aimed to establish whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) may be a predictive parameter of 1-year mortality in a population of patients admitted to the ED with severe dyspnoea attributable to different underlying disorders.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all the patients undergoing arterial blood gas analysis for severe dyspnoea (irrespective of the cause) during admission to ED of University Hospital of Verona from September 1, 2014 to November 31, 2014.
Results: The final study population consisted of 287 patients for whom complete clinical and laboratory information was available. Overall, 36 patients (12.5%) died after a 1-year follow-up. The RDW value was found to be considerably increased in patients who deceased during the follow-up compared to those who survived (17.2% versus 14.8%; p<0.001). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, the RDW value was found to be a significant predictor of 1-year mortality. In particular, patients with RDW ≥ 15.0% displayed a 72% increased risk of 1-year mortality after multiple adjustments.
Conclusions: The measurement of RDW, a very simple and inexpensive laboratory parameter, may represent an important factor for predicting medium-term mortality in patients presenting to the ED with severe dyspnoea.