Deposit salt in Romania has extremely important reserves, considered even inexhaustible at the current exploitation level. The biggest salt resources are found in the intra-Carpathian arch, represented by Transylvania and Maramures. Most sources of salt outcrops are disseminated on the edge of the Transylvania Depression, in the diapir folds formed following salt migration. The salt mines – Turda, Praid, Ocna Mures, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu, Cojocna, Ocna Sugatag – represented an important source of incomes, reason for which important human settlements formed around them. All these localities have turned nowadays into balneal and climacteric resorts that fully use the beneficial effect of the atmosphere within galleries (Praid, Turda). The most important incomes from tourism are represented by the galleries of the mines of Turda (one of the 10 wonders of the modern world) and Praid. The balneal and climacteric resorts also developed around the salt lakes installed in the areas of collapsed mines: Sovata, Ocna Sibiu, Ocna Dej, Cojocna. The most well known human settlements and the most important balneal and climacteric resorts, implicitly, are disseminated on the external branch of the Transylvania Depression (Sovata, Praid, Ocna Mures, Baile Figa, Cojocna thermae, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu) and of the Maramures Depression (Ocna Sugata, Costiui, Vad). The oldest mining exploitation is situated at Figa (county of Bistrita-Nasaud) was founded around the year AD 3000. From this point of view, it is one of the oldest mining exploitations on Earth. The existence of the world-important archaeological site can invigorate the development of the surrounding localities, but mostly of the city of Beclean.
Recent climate changes mentioned in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC, 2013) report highlight the fact that in the past 50 years at the planetary level have occurred major changes in all climate components. In this regard the analysis of rainfall oscillations and of their impact on the hydric regime is particularly important, being witnessed in the surface and groundwater level variations. In the Suha River Basin, the year 2006 has been characterized by large rainfall quantities that have been generated, in particular, in June by persistent retrograde cyclonic activity (223 mm at Slătioara 3 hydrometric station, 269.1 mm at Gemenea 5 station, 271.6 mm at Valea lui Ion station and 351.8 mm at Stulpicani). On the main course of Suha, but especially on its tributaries (Gemenea and Slătioara) have been recorded very high flow rates (5% and 2% insurance) caused by the amounts of rainfall felt in a short time. To estimate the impact of rainfall on the Suha basin hydrological regime we used data collected by the Siret Basin Water Administration-Bacau, being analyzed the rainfall quantities, duration, intensity, tendency and effects.
The main objective of the paper is focused on water quality research in the village of Bivolari, Iasi County. The Bivolari settlement is situated in the Prut meadow and develops along the road connecting Iasi and Stefanesti. The research done in this paper starts from the collection of data on water pH, water LDO (oxygen concentration), CDC (dissolved salt content) and water temperature. The parameters were measured for 7 months using the HACH-LANGE multiparameter of the Geoarchaeology Laboratory at Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi (Inter-disciplinary Platform ArheoInvest). The study is structured in two sections: scientific substantiation and applicative research. The scientific substantiation part analyzes the water features in the context of the integrated management approach as well as an analysis of the quality aspects of the water supply. The applied research part required monthly field measurements in 50 fountains (without the winter season). The approached subject is is complex and up-to-date because the citizen is a priority for EU Member States (EUPAN, 2009): the aspect of “customer satisfaction” represents a capital priority. Finally, the database is structured into two categories: spatial information such as maps; tabular information attached to spatial data. The paper also follows the transition from the field of research into the field of application by presenting models of data representation, which are at the same time tools adapted to the practical needs. In order to achieve this goal, the concept of quality (both in terms of product - drinking water and local consumer) is defined and addressed in an integrated manner. Of the 50 wells monitored, only one had a water shortage in the last 10 years, and in two other cases there were problems with household waste and dead animals that damaged the water supply. Some fountains can dry at intervals of 3-4 years.
The study of loess and loess-like deposits in Romania has developed considerably, over the years. C14 dating determined that the last three glaciations (Mindel, Riss, Würm) and, at least, two interglacial periods were recorded in the Dobrudja Plateau. Five other paleosol layers indicate the succession of the Quaternary interglacial stations. The loess of Dobrudja, is about 50 m in thickness. The term loess-scape is comprised of all the processes and forms specific to these deposits, which create a unique landscape, with local peculiarities. Natural and anthropic conditions created loessoid microforms (clastokarst) specific to the Dobrudja Plateau. The friability of loess-like deposits, the heavy rains, the lack of vegetation, the existence of a steep slope and of a low basic level, led to the development of a marginal (border) clastokarst on the western and northern side of the plateau (on the right of Danube bank). The aim of this study is to rename the microforms specific to loess-like deposits and to highlight new ones: solution clastic dolines, collapse clastic dolines, clastic resurgences (intermittent karst springs), piping clastic glacis, collapse clastic glacis, proluvial clastic glacis, clastic micro-waterfalls with clastic micro-cauldrons, clastokarstic curtains (drapes), and so on. Consequently, the loess-scape in the Dobrudja Plateau is distinct, just like the karstic, volcanic, glacial landscape, and so on. New clastokarstic microforms were highlighted and efforts were made to establish a proper terminology.
The increase in most components of the climate over the past 50 years, including air and water temperature, is a real phenomenon, as attested by the numerous specialized researches according to IPCC (2013). The water temperature is one of the most important climatic components in analyzing the hydrological regime of the Bistrita River (Romania). The thermal regime of the Bistrita River basin and the frost phenomena associated with the risk factor are particularly important and frequently appear in this area. In recent years, under the Siret Water Basin Administration, this parameter was permanently monitored, so we could do an analysis, which shows that the water temperature fluctuations, influenced by air temperature, lead to the emergence of the ice jam phenomenon. The present study aims to analyze the water temperature, as compared to the air temperature, and the effect of these components on the liquid flow regime (the values were recorded at the hydrological stations on the main course of the Bistrita River). The negative effects resulted from the ice jam phenomenon require developing methods of damage prevention and defense. The frost phenomena recorded after the construction of the Bicaz dam are analyzed in this article
The hydrographic basin of the Miletin River is situated in the southeast of Europe, in a transitional temperate-continental climate, with considerable variations in the regime of precipitations. The purpose of this study is the spatial and temporal analysis of the mean seasonal discharges, meant to underline the need of implementing regulation projects for the Miletin stream. Furthermore, there are only a few specialized works on this hydrographic basin. The mean seasonal runoff presents significant seasonal and multiannual variations, caused by the high frequency of torrentiality, which characterizes the climate of the Miletin River area. Data from the rainfall stations of Nicolae Balcescu, Chiscareni, and Halceni, as well as from the hydrometric stations of Nicolae Balcescu, Sipote, and Halceni- downstream, respectively, were used. Unlike the stations with a natural runoff regime (Nicolae Balcescu, within the upper basin, Sipote within the middle basin, respectively), for Halceni-downstream (on the lower stream), the artificial runoff underlines a weak correlation with the rainfall regime. The data rows regard periods of 33-59 years, enough to conduct statistical analyses. Data from Halceni- downstream were analyzed, too, though the variables that characterize the hydrologic and rainfall regime within this region concern only 18 years. In the Miletin hydrographic basin, low and high discharge oscillations occur in all the four seasons. This characteristic is very different from those of the great hydrographic arteries that cross the east of Romania: Pruth and Siret.
Lake Erenciuc is situated in the Danube Delta (Romania) and was created in the abandoned riverbed of the Sfântu Gheorghe arm. It is the largest meander lake in Romania. During spring–summer, the physico-chemical parameters of water have been measured in seven lake sampling points and one at the Sfântu Gheorghe branch, which supplies the lake through Erenciuc channel. The area around Lake Erenciuc belongs to the category of strictly protected areas within the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. The following water quality parameters were measured: temperature (T: °C); pH (pH units); Luminescent Dissolved Oxygen (LDO: mg dm−3); Dissolved Oxygen saturation (DO: %); water tension (U: mV); Electrical Conductivity (EC: μS cm−1); Total Dissolved Solids concentration (TDS: mg dm−3). The recorded values are easily differentiated across the entire length of the elongated lake path, especially between inflow (upstream) and outflow (downstream). The parameters recorded during the spring–summer period, with high flow rates and high water levels, demonstrate good lake water quality, especially oxygenation. The study also demonstrates that high waters refresh and recalibrate the water quality in isolated lake basins.
The last Roman City on the eastern side of the Danubian Limes is Halmyris. It is a City-port which plays a primordially military role, situated at the link between the fluvial and the marine environment. The fortress is famous for its location at the foot of the legendary Peuce Island. Halmyris benefits from important natural resources from two environments with distinct characteristics: marine (Halmyris Bay) and freshwater (Danube Delta). When the city was founded, the St. George arm was the most important navigation artery of Danube. Therefore, the penetration upstream was monitored strictly by the City-port of Halmyris (customs). This study emphasizes on the existence of natural favorable premises for the city of Halmyris and it attempts to revitalize thematic tourism. The assessment of paleoenvironment evolution and present conservation stage has been achieved to improve the risk management plan.