The article reviews Ernő Foerk’s career through the perspective of his sacred buildings. Ernő Foerk’s oeuvre accounts for a significant proportion of these works. Most of his accomplished churches were made in a Historicist style with a Latin-cross-shaped plan and facade tower. His designs which remained on paper, however, show a more diverse picture from both spatial and stylistic aspect. A number of plans were marked together with Gyula Petrovácz, however, we should presume Foerk had a more significant role in the artistic formation. In addition to the general historicist language, his works also had unique stylistic features, which were mainly related to the design of towers’ proportions, windows, pediments and spires, and to the use of bricks in facade design.
Objectives: Study of circulating and synovial levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in patients with different stages of knee osteoarthritis and correlation analysis of these parameters with disease severity.
Methods: We enrolled 20 patients with different stages of knee osteoarthritis. The IKDC score (International Knee Documentation Comittee, 2000) was determined for each patient. Based on these data patients were divided into two groups: group I (advanced osteoarthritis) and group II (early osteoarthritis). Serum and synovial fluid levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, TNF-α were determined.
Results: For the entire group the level of osteocalcin in the serum showed higher values than in the synovial fluid. We found statistically significant differences in the serum levels of osteocalcin between the two groups (group I: 2.18 ± 0.54 ng/ml, group II: 6.07 ± 1.98 ng/ml, p = 0.019). Serum and synovial osteocalcin in the whole study lot could not be correlated with the disease score, however we observed a tendency towards significant negative correlation between the serum osteocalcin and IKDC score for group I and between synovial osteocalcin and IKDC score in group II. In the entire group, synovial osteoprotegerin concentration was six times higher than the serum osteoprotegerin level (p <0.0001) and TNF-α showed higher circulating levels than local concentrations.
Conclusions: In the advanced osteoarthritis group the serum and synovial osteocalcin show lower values than in the early osteoarthritis group, which means that as the disease progresses, bone anabolism decreases. In the case of osteoprotegerin, no significant difference between the two groups was detected.
The bioacoustic analyses of animal sounds result in an enormous amount of digitized acoustic data, and we need effective automatic processing to extract the information content of the recordings. Our research focuses on the song of Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) and we are interested in the evolution of acoustic signals. During the last 20 years, we obtained hundreds of hours of recordings of bird songs collected in natural environment, and there is a permanent need for the automatic process of recordings. In this study, we chose an open-source, deep-learning image detection system to (1) find the species-specific songs of the Collared Flycatcher on the recordings and (2) to detect the small, discrete elements so-called syllables within the song. For these tasks, we first transformed the acoustic data into spectrogram images, then we trained two deep-learning models separately on our manually segmented database. The resulted models detect the songs with an intersection of union higher than 0.8 and the syllables higher than 0.7. This technique anticipates an order of magnitude less human effort in the acoustic processing than the manual method used before. Thanks to the new technique, we are able to address new biological questions that need large amount of acoustic data.
Diurnal birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) has traditionally been known as comprising a single order. Recently, this classification has been used in the non-taxonomic sense as referring to a convergent group of birds that are largely classified as predatory birds. Although these birds are similar in their morphology, the species differ in their foraging methods and prey preference. The cranial shape and the physical attributes determine the efficiency of the resource use. The aim of this study is to increase our knowledge of the relationship between skull shape, prey preference, and foraging habits. A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyse two-dimensional cranial landmarks. We used principal component (PC) analyses on measurements that may be related to prey preference and foraging habits. The PCs are resulted described the relative height of the skull and beak, the variation in the relative size, the orientation and robustness of the lacrimal bone, the variation in the relative size of the neurocranium compared to the viscerocranium, and the orientation of the palatine bone. The dietary categories significantly overlap. The skull morphology reflects more on foraging habits than diet or prey preference.
Wildfowl (Anatidae) are a diverse group of birds and globally distributed. These birds feed by widely varying methods, there are generalist and specialist species. In a number of vertebrate taxa trophic specializations have led to distinct differences in the morphology of the skull, like in birds. Our knowledge and understanding of the relationship between cranial morphology and feeding mechanism of wildfowl are limited. The aim of this article is to increase our knowledge of the relationship between skull shape and foraging habits and find the identifiable attributes of the differently adapted groups. We used morphometric methods with 7 linear measurements of the skull. We used principal component (PC) analysis to identify the groups with different foraging habits. The PCs were related to measurements which represent the demanded muscle mass for feeding and the amount of capable food items. The grazers have a narrower bill and bigger bone surface which requires more muscle tissue than the broad billed filter-feeders. We observed the structural and functional differences between grazers and filter-feeders. There are no important differences in the bill measurements between omnivore dabbling and diving ducks. Only the bill is not enough to deduce the foraging habits.
Owls (Strigiformes) are small to large birds, mostly solitary and nocturnal predators. They can be found all around the Earth except Antarctica and some remote islands. The species differ in size, diet and habitat, which led to different morphological adaptations of the skull. The main differences are in the orbital and the otical region, which are connected to the visual and hearing capabilities. The aim of the recent study is to increase our knowledge of the relationship between skull shape and foraging habits and tried to find those characters that are related to diet. A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyse two-dimensional cranial landmarks. We used principal component (PC) analyses on measurements that may be related to visual and hearing abilities. The PCs are resulted in the robusticity of the skull and the asymmetry of the otical region. There are differences in position and shape of postorbital processes (POP) and tympanic wings (TW). Species with symmetrical skull shape are basically crepuscular or diurnal predators and species with more asymmetrical skulls are mostly nocturnal hunters and have better hearing capabilities.
Parrots (Psittaciformes) are a unique and diverse avian group and vary tremendously in size, shape, and colour. Mainly distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics, most species of parrots are largely or exclusively arboreal with several exceptions. The species also differ in diet and habitat, which led to different musculoskeletal adaptations of the skull. However, parrots have conspicuous generalized external features; in this recent study, we tried to increase our knowledge of the cranial shape and foraging habits. A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyse two-dimensional cranial landmarks. We used principal component (PC) analyses on measurements that may be related to diet. The PCs described the relative height of the cranium, the relative length and curvature of the beak, differences in the orientation and curvature of the lacrimal bone and the upper margin of orbits, variation in the size and position of the palatine bone and the relative width of the cranium, and variation in the relative size of the neurocranium compared to the viscerocranium. The dietary categories overlap in the morphospace but the analysis in lateral and ventral view resulted in significant differences.
The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament single-bundle reconstruction (ACLR) which involves reconstructing the ligament using autologous graft (semitendinosus and gracilis tendon). This is a retrospective study undertaken between the 1st of January 2010 and December 31, 2011 at the Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology Tîrgu-Mureş, involving 30 patients (6 women, 24 men), 17 to 54 years old (mean age of 30.13 years). All the patients underwent ACLR, with the above mentioned technique. The instrument chosen to assess the quality of life was the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Questionnaire, completed by telephone. This questionnaire has 8 scales which are noted according to the received answers: Physical Functioning (PF), RF (Role Physical), BP (Bodily Pain), GH (General Health), VT (Vitality), SF (Social Functioning), RE (Role Emotional) and MH (Mental Health). The best way to score these scales is by comparing them to the healthy population, which is why this study uses normbased scales where the mean value is 50 and the standard deviation is 10. The scales used in the questionnaire are showed the next results: mean norm-based PF 49.19, RF 46.11, BP 49.82, GH 52.19, VT 52.14, SF 50.43, RE 41.36 and MH 47.18. The general Physical Component showed a mean of 48.93 and the Mental Component a mean of 47.33, close to the standard mean of 50. All these results were included in the standard deviation, which showed that the patients’ quality of life was very close to the quality of life of the normal population. Patients who have a history of ACLR tend to have a quality of life similar to the normal, healthy population.
Objectives. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of immediate weight-bearing versus two weeks delayed weight-bearing following anterior cruciate reconstruction.
Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study on the efficiency of immediate or delayed weight-bearing following anterior cruciate reconstruction. 30 patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included in the study. The patients in the first group were allowed the maximum endurance level of weight-bearing on the operated leg from the first postoperative day, resuming normal walking as soon as possible. Patients in group II were barely allowed the loading of the affected limb after 2 weeks postoperatively. Patient assessment was performed preoperatively, immediately after the procedure and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months.
Results. The average pre- and postoperative values of the arthometric assessment show a statistically significant improvement of joint stability in both groups of patients. There were no significant differences in the development of joint mobility averages between the two groups. Following the evolution of functional test average values, there is a gradual function improvement in both groups of patients. The assessment results at 6 weeks and three months postoperatively shows that patients in the first group are significantly better in comparison with the results of patients in group II. The final evaluation showed no significant differences between the two groups of patients.
Conclusions. The final assessment revealed no statistically significant difference in reported or objectively measured function. We believe that the weight-bearing exercises and the non–weight-bearing exercises are equally effective and safe in the post-ligamentoplasty recovery.
The haematocrit rate of the blood shows the individual physiological state. As the haematocrit grows, the higher erythrocyte number results in more efficient oxygen uptake capacity which can lead to better performance and probably a better survival rate of an individual. Hence we assume that the high value of haematocrit reflects good health state. Altogether 308 blood samples were collected from a wild population of Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) in two breeding stages during a period of 2008-2010. We tried to elucidate the relationship between condition and haematocrit level of an individual and studied the haematocrit changes of an individual between years. The haematocrit values differed between years. Females had higher haematocrit values than males in 2010 but not in 2009. At courtship the haematocrit level of males was higher, than during nestling care. The different environmental effects and energy demands of the individuals may be the driving force behind the observed changes in haematocrit level. Analysing the changes between two years, there was a positive correlation between changes in condition index and haematocrit of individuals. The haematocrit values of an individual were repeatable between years. This finding suggests that haematocrit can be informative about the individual’s general health state.