Alexandra Kalogeraki, Georgios Z. Papadakis, Dimitrios Tamiolakis, Iliana Karvela-Kalogeraki, Mihailos Karvelas-Kalogerakis, John Segredakis, Michael Papadakis, Eleni Moustou, Galateia Datseri and Maria Tzardi
Solid masses of the pancreas represent a variety of benign and malignant neoplasms of the exocrine and endocrine tissues of the pancreas. A tissue diagnosis is often required to direct therapy in the face of uncertain diagnosis or if the patient is not a surgical candidate either due to advanced disease or comorbidities. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a relatively new technology that employs endoscopy and high-frequency ultrasound (US). EUS involves imaging of the pancreatic head and the uncinate from the duodenum and imaging of the body and tail from the stomach. It has been shown to be a highly sensitive method for the detection of pancreatic masses. It is superior to extracorporeal US and computed tomographic (CT) scans, especially when the pancreatic tumor is smaller than 2-3 cm. Although EUS is highly sensitive in detecting pancreatic solid masses, its ability to differentiate between inflammatory masses and malignant disease is limited. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) brushing, CT-guided biopsies, and transabdominal ultrasound (US) have been the standard nonsurgical methods for obtaining a tissue diagnosis of pancreatic lesions, but a substantial false-negative rate has been reported. Transabdominal US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) has been used for tissue diagnosis in patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. It has been shown to be highly specific, with no false-positive diagnoses. With the advent of curvilinear echoendoscopes, transgastric and transduodenal EUS-FNAB of the pancreas have become a reality EUS with FNAB has revolutionized the ability to diagnose and stage cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and assess the pancreas. Gastrointestinal cancers can be looked at with EUS and their depth of penetration into the intestinal wall can be determined. Any suspicious appearing lymph nodes can be biopsied using EUS/FNAB. The pancreas is another organ that is well visualized with EUS. Abnormalities such as tumors and cysts of the pancreas can be carefully evaluated using EUS and then biopsied with FNAB. There are many new applications of EUS using FNAB. Researchers are looking to deliver chemotherapeutics into small pancreatic cancers and cysts. Nerve blocks using EUS/FNAB to inject numbing medicines into the celiac ganglia, a major nerve cluster, are now routinely performed in patients with pain due to pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study is to perform a review of the literature regarding the usefulness of EUS/FNAB in the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Alexandra Kalogeraki, Georgios Z. Papadakis, Dimitrios Tamiolakis, Iliana Karvela-Kalogeraki, Mihailos Karvelas-Kalogerakis, John Segredakis and Eleni Moustou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth more common cause of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Despite advances in surgical and non surgical modalities in the treatment of HCC, a number of controversies regarding appropriate diagnostic procedures continue to evolve. A consensus statement from the European Association for the study of Liver Diseases (EASL) has been formulated to help clinicians standardize diagnostic approaches. In nodules greater than 2 cm diameter in size, diagnosis can be made if any 2 imaging studies (ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or hepatic arteriography) show increased vascularity. Alternatively only one imaging study with an Alpha fetoprotein level more than 400ng/mL is diagnostic. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) should be performed in cases of indeterminate radiology and in lesions sized between 1 and 2 cm. The aim of this review is to familiarize pathologists in the FNAB diagnosis of HCC in an appropriate and timely fashion.
Alexandra Kalogeraki, George Lazopoulos, Georgios Z. Papadakis, Dimitrios Tamiolakis, Iliana Karvela-Kalogeraki, Mihailos Karvelas-Kalogerakis, John Segredakis, Michael Papadakis, Eleni Moustou, Galateia Datseri, George E. Chalkiadakis and Maria Tzardi
Background. Malignant pericardial effusion occurs in one tenth of all cancers. It is a very serious disorder that is mainly a secondary process due to metastasis because primary neoplasms of the pericardium such as mesotheliomas, sarcomas being exceedingly rare.
Pericardial effusions with a cardiac tamponade constitute a surgical emergency and the pericardiocentesis represents the first class therapeutic recommendation. Pericardial effusion specimens are uncommon and to the best of our knowledge the current study is the largest systematic evaluation of pericardial fluid cytology performed to date.
Material and Methods. Pericardial effusion specimens from 145 patients collected over a 10 year period were studied by cytology and results were compared with pericardial histology results. The minimum pericardial fluid volume used for adequate cytologic diagnosis in these patients was more than 60 mL.
Results. Cytological diagnosis revealed malignant pericardial exudates in 100% of the studied patients. There was no any false negative result in comparison with histology.
Conclusions. Cytology provides an immediate and accurate means of diagnosis. Immunocytology is very important in the diagnostic evaluation.