Tsviatko V. Rangelov, Petia S. Dineva and George D. Manolis
The aim of this study is to develop an efficient numerical technique using the non-hypersingular, traction boundary integral equation method (BIEM) for solving wave propagation problems in an anisotropic, viscoelastic plane with cracks. The methodology can be extended from the macro-scale with certain modifications to the nano-scale. Furthermore, the proposed approach can be applied to any type of anisotropic material insofar as the BIEM formulation is based on the fundamental solution of the governing wave equation derived for the case of general anisotropy. The following examples are solved: (i) a straight crack in a viscoelastic orthotropic plane, and (ii) a blunt nano-crack inside a material of the same type. The mathematical modelling effort starts from linear fracture mechanics, and adds the fractional derivative concept for viscoelastic wave propagation, plus the surface elasticity model of M. E. Gurtin and A. I. Murdoch, which leads to nonclassical boundary conditions at the nano-scale. Conditions of plane strain are assumed to hold. Following verification of the numerical scheme through comparison studies, further numerical simulations serve to investigate the dependence of the stress intensity factor (SIF) and of the stress concentration factor (SCF) that develop in a cracked inhomogeneous plane on (i) the degree of anisotropy, (ii) the presence of viscoelasticity, (iii) the size effect with the associated surface elasticity phenomena, and (iv) finally the type of the dynamic disturbance propagating through the bulk material.
High damping rubber bearings (HDRB) are the most commonly used base isolators in buildings and are often combined with other systems, such as sliding bearings. Their mechanical behaviour is highly nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. At first, a physical process is suggested here to explain the empirical formula introduced by J.M. Kelly in 1991, where the dissipated energy of a HDRB under cyclic testing, at constant frequency, is proportional to the amplitude of the shear strain, raised to a power of approximately 1.50. This physical process is best described by non-Newtonian fluid behaviour, originally developed by F.H. Norton in 1929 to describe creep in steel at high-temperatures. The constitutive model used includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity, raised to a non-integer power. The identification of a three parameter Kelvin model, the simplest possible system with nonlinear viscosity, is also suggested here. Furthermore, a more advanced model with variable damping coefficient is implemented to better model in this complex mechanical process. Next, the assumption of strain-rate dependence in their rubber layers under cyclic loading is examined in order to best interpret experimental results on the transmission of motion between the upper and lower surfaces of HDRB. More specifically, the stress-relaxation phenomenon observed with time in HRDB can be reproduced numerically, only if the constitutive model includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity raised to a non-integer power, i. e., the Norton fluid previously mentioned. Thus, it becomes possible to compute the displacement transmissibility function between the top and bottom surfaces of HDRB base isolator systems and to draw engineering-type conclusions, relevant to their design under time-harmonic loads.
George D. Manolis, Asimina Athanatopoulou-Kyriakou, Kosmas D. Dragos, Argyris Arabatzis, Alexandros Lavdas and Christos Z. Karakostas
In this work, we develop a technique for performing system identification in typical pedestrian bridges, using routine equipment at a minimal configuration, and for cases where actual structural data are either sparse or absent. To this end, two pedestrian bridges were examined, modelled and finally instrumented so as to record their dynamic response under operational conditions. More specifically, the bridges were numerically modelled using the finite element method (FEM) according to what was deduced to be their current operating status, while rational assumptions were made with respect to uncertain structural properties. Next, results from field testing using a portable accelerometer unit were processed to produce response spectra that were used as input to a structural identification software program, which in turn yielded the excited natural frequencies and mode shapes of the bridges. The low level of discrepancy is given between analytical and experimental results, the latter are used for a final calibration of the numerical models.