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  • Author: Gang Ma x
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Rui Zhang, Songsong Ma, Xiujuan Li, Gang Luo, Shuliang Xue and Jianqiao Li


Introduction: Ostrich characteristics include fast running, of which the probable enablers have been studied. Yet little research has taken place on one anatomical feature. It is mainly the special integuments on the ostrich foot which facilitate fast running on sand, because as point of direct sand contact they bear the whole weight and provide all the forward force. This study elucidates aspects of the integuments.

Material and Methods: A stereo microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and confocal scanning laser microscope were used to observe these integuments. Their surface structure was shown accurately in photographs. An SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to check element contents of the upper and bottom areas and those on the lateral area of the 3rd toe.

Results: The content of some chemical elements on the upper area (Mg 2.04%, Si 0.18%, P 1.97%, Ca 0.59%, and S 0.69%) was higher than that of the bottom area (Mg 0.14%, Si 0.09%, P 0.10%, Ca 0.28%, and S 0.90%). Zinc was the particular element on the upper area, while sodium, chlorine, and potassium were the specific elements on the bottom area. The parts which must withstand different frictions contained different chemical compounds.

Conclusion: The microscopic plane with layer-like structure and stripes may contribute to the wear-resistance of the papillae. The polygonal and prism structures are helpful to fix papillae in a firmer way.

Open access

Gang Ma, Linru Jiang, Yixi Chen, Chenyue Dai and Rong Ju


The promotion and application of electric vehicles will contribute to the solution of several problems, such as energy shortage and environmental pollution, and the achievement of country economy and energy security. But a large-scale vehicle-to-grid system may cause adverse effects in the distribution network operation, the power network planning and such other parts. First, this paper collects the factors that influence the electric vehicle charging load and establishes the EV charging load model with a Monte-Carlo method. Then, we analyze the effect that the EV charging load made on the nodal voltage deviation under different permeability based on the IEEE30 node system. At last, this research gets the conclusion that the nodal voltage deviation is closely related to EV permeability, node type and node location. This research conclusion will provide practical guidance to the charging station planning.