In this experiment we studied the role of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmissions in the ascending reflex pathways in isolated rat colon. Partitioned organ bath, electrical field stimulation (EFS), drugs and isolated preparations were used to evaluate motor activity of (LM) and circular muscles (CM). Ascending motor responses of LM and CM were frequency-dependent contraction, significantly more expressed in LM. Atropine (0.3 µM) decreased ascending contractions of LM. During atropine treatment spantide (0.1 µM) further suppressed ascending contractile motor responses. In the presence of atropine, L-NNA (0.5 mM) restored ascending contractions of LM, while contractions were strongly depressed after addition of L-arginine (0.5 mM). Ascending response in CM, caused by atropine, consisted of an initial relaxation followed by contraction. Spantide decreased the contraction. L-NNA reduced the relaxation and significantly restored the atropine-influenced contraction, while L-arginine induced a deep relaxation of CM. The presence of ChAT, SP-containing nerve cell bodies and fibers and NADPH-diaphorase-reactive cell bodies and processes in myenteric ganglia were detected. The results indicated that nitric oxide is an important modulator of ascending cholinergic and tachykininergic excitation in colonic region of the large intestine of rats.
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are haematological diseases, characterized by clonal hematopoiesis. Hemostasis abnormalities are among the most critical and frequent complications, affecting the quality of life and a possible reason for death. Thrombotic complications are common and multifactorial. Our aim was to study some genetic thrombophilia factors – Factor V Leiden (FVL), G20210A mutation in prothrombin gene (PR G20210A) and PLA2 allele polymorphism of glycoprotein IIIa gene (GPIIIa gene), and their frequency and association with thrombotic risk in both Philadelphia-positive and Philadelphia-negative MPN – chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary and secondary myelofibrosis (MF). In our patient population, PLA2 allele polymorphism of GPIIIa gene proved to be the most common and significantly associated with thrombotic complications – 26.85% of our patients were carriers, and 24.14% of them reported thrombotic complications.