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  • Author: Gabriela Popa x
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The association between enteroviruses and type 1 diabetes

Abstract

The hypothesis that under some circumstances enteroviral infections can lead to type 1 diabetes (T1D) was proposed several decades ago, based initially on evidence from animal studies and sero-epidemiology. The mechanisms leading to the disease involve complex interactions between the virus, host target tissue (pancreas) and the immune system. The following article is intended as a review of several recent information of the topic based on human studies that try to establish a connection between a viral infection and Type 1 diabetes. Through understanding better this association and it’s implications in the onset of T1D potential new ways of prevention and treatment may emerge.

Open access
Silent Hypoglycemia in Patients with Diabetes

Abstract

Introduction. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia increases cardiovascular morbidity sometimes even with fatalities, and also increases cognitive disorders in most people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hypoglycemia is characterized by unawareness if the sympathoadrenal response is attenuated during the night, in autonomic neuropathy or in elderly patients. Therefore, hypoglycemia is a limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes.

Methods. We aimed to analyze the hypoglycemic events and the time spent with low glucose level (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) in patients with diabetes (T1D, T2D) with insulin therapy (basal or basal-bolus), in ambulatory or hospital setting. The glucose variability was assessed via the interstitial glucose concentration, measured with a Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) system over 72 hours.

Results. The incidence, severity and duration of hypoglycemia are not correlated with HbA1c, disease’s duration and patient’s age. In patients with T1D, severe hypoglycemia is more frequent in patients with a long duration of diabetes. In this analysis, the type of basal analog insulin did not influence the presence of hypoglycemia (p=0.7), but the duration of nocturnal hypoglycemia was longer with insulin glargine U100 than with insulin detemir. The basal regimen is more protective for hypoglycemia than basal-bolus insulin.

Conclusions. The study suggested that hypoglycemic events are common, silent and prolonged in 1/3 of patients with T1D and T2D. The CGM system is beneficial for all patients with T1D and for patients with T2D with hypoglycemic risk and complications, to adjust medication in order to prevent cardiovascular events.

Open access
Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract

Background and aims: It is known that the majority of critical unacknowledged hypoglycemia has an increased incidence in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) with a long evolution. The aim of this research is to evaluate the variability of glucose level and hypoglycemic events in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) having pharmacological interventions with hypoglycemic risk. These events are sometimes asymptomatic also in T2DM: frequently in elderly, patients with autonomic neuropathy, or having a long evolution of disease.

Material and method: This analysis includes 72 patients with T2DM, with a relative good metabolic control, and possible glucose fluctuations. Glucose variability was appreciated using continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) used for more than 72 hours in hospital or ambulatory setting.

Results: The incidence, duration and severity of hypoglycemia are not correlated with HbA1c value, age, disease duration or treatment. Approximately a quarter of patients had nocturnal hypoglycemia and in 37,5% of events hypoglycemia was prolonged, more 45 minutes. Clinical manifestations in diurnal hypoglycemia were presents in only 40% of the recorded events.

Conclusions: The study suggested that CGMS is beneficial for patients with type 2 diabetes, with hypoglycemic risk and complications, to adjusted medication, education and prevention the cardiovascular events.

Open access
Biochemical Investigations of Different Mushroom Species for Their Biotechnological Potential

Abstract

Among bioactive constituents occurring in mushrooms, phenolic compounds focus attention due to their antioxidant activity. Also, a special attention is given to mushrooms secreting extra cellular enzymes such as lignin peroxidases (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase (Lac), enzymes which can be used in biodegradation processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate ten mushroom species for total phenolic compounds, lignocellulolytic enzymes and for their synthetic dyes decolourisation potential. For this purpose, 70% ethanol extracts of ten dried mushrooms were analysed using spectrophotometric methods. The results revealed that total phenolic compounds in the extracts were the highest in A. campestris, P. ostreatus var. Florida and T. versicolor. Laccase activity showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus var. Florida, A. campestris, L. edodes, and G. applanatum. Lignin peroxidases (LiP) activity showed high values in extracts from A. campestris, F. velutipes, P. ostreatus var. Florida and T. versicolor, whereas manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was highest in extracts from P. ostreatus var. Florida, A. campestris and G. applanatum. It was found that some of the fungal extracts showed high activities in decolorizing of synthetic dyes.

Open access
The Global Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus and Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Tuberculosis (TB) are two chronic diseases which have a major impact on the population health in developing countries. DM is a chronic, noncommunicable disease, characterized by hyperglycemia, caused by insulin-resistance, inadequate insulin secretion or both. TB is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an airborne bacteria. DM implies a three times greater risk of developing TB and their association can be considered one of the most important challenges regarding TB control. TB can cause a temporary impaired glucose tolerance, which is a risk factor for DM development. The possibility of relapse or death of a patient with TB is significantly higher when the patient also has DM. The DM-TB association represents an important threat to the population health and requires the implementation of adequate programs in order to reduce the prevalence and incidence of the two diseases.

Open access
Study of Rural Groundwater Quality in Brestea Village, Romania

Abstract

Water is a social requirement and an important factor in the ecological balance. Water from wells is good for direct consumption if the soil is not contaminated. The quality of drinking water is regulated by Law no. 458/2002 (transposing the Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of drinking water). The aim of this paper was to assess the physicochemical qualities of groundwaters from Brestea village, commune Denta, Timis County. The water samples were taken in 2015 from 10 functional wells. For the source whose physical and chemical parameters have exceeded the limit values, the monthly monitoring of the water quality (microbiological and physico-chemical properties) has been performed for 2 years. At the same time, the pH of the soil near the water sources was also measured. The results highlighted a good connection between the microorganisms from water and the nitrite, nitrate and ammonium content of water. The information can be further used to identify and eliminate the specific pollutants, areas and pollution sources.

Open access
New Insight into the Role of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Cardiometabolic Diseases

Abstract

Humans spend almost one third of their life sleeping, thus sleep deprivation or poor sleep quality will have consequences upon the quality of life. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder that represents a respiratory cessation for at least ten seconds, which appears repeatable during sleep and it is accompanied by decreased oxygen saturation. The diagnosis of OSA is possible by filling in the STOP, STOP BANG, BERLIN questionnaires and performing the polysomnography, an accessible and more accurate method but yet very expensive. The prevalence of OSA is continuously increasing, but because of the nonspecific symptoms, the percentage of un-diagnosed cases is further increased. Data from 11 epidemiological studies published between 1993 and 2014 indicated an OSA prevalence of 22% in men and 17% in women. It has been suggested that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between OSA and obesity, and numerous studies have shown association of OSA with insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications and atrial fibrillation.

Open access
Climate Change’s Impact on Sandy Soils and on the Grafted Watermelons Adaptation

Abstract

Starting from the fact that the principles of agro-ecology become fundamental principles for the development of a green economy, especially in the context of current climate change, the effective capitalization of the ecological conditions of an agricultural area is one of the main objectives of agricultural science and practice. Identifying and formulating adaptive technological solutions can guide any producer to capitalize different climate and soil conditions. The sandy soils in Southern Oltenia offer less favourable ecological conditions, and the cultivation of watermelons is now profitable enough for such conditions. Growers are, however, interested in getting the most productive yields, early and profitable, even under the conditions of climate change. The current paper quantifies the grafting of watermelons in the conditions of the sandy soils of Dăbuleni, with poor soil supply, with meteorological drought phenomena and agricultural drought risk, in terms of quality and quantity of production under the climatic conditions in 2015-2017. The results, correlated with the climatic conditions, recommend the cultivation of grafted watermelons, offering the producers in the area a niche of ecological adaptation, ensuring the resistance of plants to abiotic, thermo-hydric stress factors, and improving the resistance to low temperatures, heat and drought.

Open access
Insulin Resistance (IR) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Identifying Predictors of Insulin Resistance and Establishing a Correlation Between Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk

Abstract

Insulin resistance is a determinant factor for the increased prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients. In this study we determined those modifications of clinical and biochemical parameters associated with insulin resistance in the diabetic patient, these alterations can offer us indications concerning the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the diabetes development in the case of most patients. Also we determined a correlation between insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk, through the combined effect of age and insulin resistance on this risk.

Open access
The Diabetes-Tuberculosis Co-Epidemic: The Interaction between Individual and Socio-Economic Risk Factors

Abstract

Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbi-mortality, about 30% of the population having a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a threefold increased risk of developing the disease. The prevalence of DM is rapidly increasing, especially in countries with low and middle income, where TB incidence is also increased, thus baffling the efforts for TB control. The DM-TB co-epidemic is more frequent in married, older men, with reduced level of education, low income, without a steady job, with lifestyle habits such as alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentarism, living in an urban environment, in crowded areas, in insanitary conditions. These patients have a higher body mass index (BMI) compared with those without DM and frequently present family history of TB, family history of DM, longer duration of DM and reduced glycemic control. TB associated with DM is usually asymptomatic, more contagious, multidrug resistant and is significantly associated with an increased risk of therapy failure, relapse and even death. Thus, the DM-TB comorbidity represents a threat to public health and requires the implementation of urgent measures in order to both prevent and manage the two diseases.

Open access