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Andreea Elena Bocicor, Gabriela Buicu, Daniela Sabau, Andreea Varga, I Tilea and I Gabos-Grecu

Abstract

Introduction and objectives. Obesity is a public health issue, with increasing prevalence and incidence all over the world. Diet and exercise applied in obesity treatment are not always as effective as expected, as there are many other determining factors which can lead to obesity. One of these modifiable factors seem to be sleep disorder. The objective of our study was to test the positive association between the presence of sleep disorder and increased body mass index (BMI).

Material and method. 84 patients were screened in a descriptive cross-sectional study. Each patient completed the adjusted 7 items University of Toronto Sleep Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ©). Each affirmative answer was accounted 1 point. The total score was calculated. Mild sleep disorder was considered at 4-5 points, severe sleep disorder at 6 - 7 points. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each patient by the formula weight (Kg)/squared height (m2). We considered increased BMI values greater than 25 kg/m2. The association between the sleep disorder and increased BMI was statistically tested.

Results. We interviewed 84 patients, 32 (38%) men (average age 54 +/− 6.63) and 52 (62%) women (average age 50 +/− 5.26). Mild sleep disorder was present in 36 patients, and severe sleep disorder in 25 patients. We noticed association between sleep disorder and increased BMI (p=0.0064, RR=2.925, 95% CI 1.16-7.36). We observed the risk for increased BMI dependent on the sleep disorder severity.

Conclusions. Sleep disorder is a potentially modifiable risk factor which can be included in obesity therapeutic approach and management. Early diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorder is important in obesity prevention.

Open access

Bocicor Andreea Elena, Buicu Gabriela, Varga Andreea, R Tatar, Sabau Daniela, I Tilea and I Gabos-Grecu

Abstract

Introduction: Abdominal adiposity assessed by increased waist circumference and depression have both a high incidence and prevalence and are associated with increased general mortality and cardiovascular risk. Several studies showed a significant association between abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome and depression. Early detection of these associations is important for for prevention and treatment of this disease.

Material and method: Eighty patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional descriptive study. Waist circumference was measured in all patients and an increased waist circumference was considered for subjects with values higher than 80 cm in women and higher than 94 cm in men as. Patients completed standardized questionnaires HADS for assessment of depression and anxiety. A depression (D) score higher than 10 points showed a trend to depression while an anxiety (A) score higher than 10 indicated a tendency to anxiety. The association between increased waist circumference, depression and anxiety was studied.

Results: We interviewed 80 patients, 34 (43%) men (mean age 62+/−6.43) and 46 (57%) women (mean age 59+/−5.16). Increased waist circumference was recorded in 22 men, and in 30 women. We noticed a good association between increased waist circumference and both depression (p=0.0006, RR=2.007, 95%CI 1.24-3.24) and anxiety (p=0.017, RR=2.046, 95%CI 1.21-3.45). We found both anxiety and depression risks rather equal in men, while in women we observed a higher depression risk.

Conclusions: Increased waist circumference is associated to depression and anxiety tendency in both genders. Depression trend is more powerful in women, while in men both depression and anxiety seen to have an equal frequency. Psychotherapy should be added to lifestyle changes in patients with abdominal adiposity.

Open access

Ferencz Melinda, Irimia Elena-Ramona, Buicu Gabriela Elena, Moica Theodor, Gabos Grecu Cristian, Sabău Daniela Claudia and Gabos Grecu Iosif

Abstract

Introduction: Stressful life events have a negative effect on mental health. Job loss is an event with a psychotraumatic character. Identification of the main sources of stress faced by the individual is essential in the management of depression.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the main risk factors that play a role in the onset and maintenance of depression.

Material and methods: we made a prosepctive study including 68 outpatients aged over 18, recently diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), without psychotic features, with initiated antidepressant treatment, being in evidence of First Clinic of Psychiatry Tirgu-Mures, between 01.01.2013-31.12.2013. To assess the severity of depression and to measure the antidepressant treatment efficacy we used Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) at study onset, respectively at endpoint. The parameters followed were: HAM-D17 score, response to treatment, the mean number of hospitalizations in a year.

Results: The group included 82.35% women and 17.65% men, mostly from urban areas, aged between 35 and 68, with a HAM-D17 score between 24 and 27. The major stressful life events inventory shows that 20.58 % of the patients were unemployed. The observed effects were more extensive in men.

Conclusions: How stressful life events exert their influence on mood is complex. The onset of depression often seems to coincide with a stressful event, although sometimes the event is only the revelator of an episode ready to trigger. The findings indicate the need of prevention politics for relapse of the disease, which is a disadvantage regarding the re-employment.

Open access

Th Moica, I Gabos Grecu, Marieta Gabos Grecu, Melinda Ferencz, Elena Gabriela Buicu, Andreea Sălcudean and C Gabos Grecu

Abstract

Introduction: Major depressive disorder is a chronic and debilitating disease characterized by a wide range of emotional and physical symptoms that coexist during a depressive episode and may reoccur at some point during the progression of the disease for the majority of patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate psychiatrists’ experience regarding the response to antidepressive treatment and their options regarding augmentation strategies in depression with incomplete response to antidepressant monotherapy.

Method: We applied an 18-item questionnaire containing multiple choice questions to adult psychiatrists working in ambulatories, hospitals or mental health centers.

Results: Fourty-two psychiatrists have agreed to answer the questionnaire. The majority of them were psychiatry specialists, between 35 and 49 years of age, working in an outpatient unit. For the majority of doctors, SSRIs (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) proved to be the first line treatment both for the first depressive episode and for recurrent depression, followed by SNRI (Serotonin and Noradrenalin Reuptake Inhibitors). Regarding the duration of maintenance treatment for the patients who achieved complete remission after the first episode of depression, the results showed a wide spectrum from 4 to 9 months.

Conclusions: Incomplete response to antidepressive monotherapy is very frequent both for the first depressive episode and for recurrent depression. Given the pharmacological profile that some atypical antipsychotic have, augmentation with atypical antipsychotics in patients with inadequate response to antidepressant monotherapy is a useful therapeutic strategy that should be considered.

Open access

Theodor Moica, Iosif Gabos Grecu, Gabriela Elena Buicu, Melinda Ferencz, Marieta Gabos Grecu, Andreea Sălcudean and Cosmin Octavian Popa

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate if depressed patients have an increased level of morning serum cortisol compared to healthy persons and to assess the relation between high levels of cortisol and prosocial coping mechanisms, in the context of Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder. Methods: Morning serum cortisol level was measured in 15 depressed patients hospitalized in First Clinic of Psychiatry Tirgu Mures and in 15 healthy controls. We have analyzed 3 behavioral coping strategies with The Strategic Approach of Coping Scale (SACS): social joining (SJ), seeking social support (SSS) and cautious action (CA). Results: 30 participants were included, the mean value of the cortisol for females was Mcort_female= 16.38 μg/dl and for males Mcort_male= 16.31 μg/dl. Independent sample t test showed that the cortisol level in depressed group was higher than the cortisol level in the control group: t = 2.394, p < 0.05 (0.024). In the MDD group the Spearman correlation between the level of serum cortisol and prosocial coping strategies was: rcortisol-SJ= -0.519; rcortisol-SSS= -0.107; rcortisol-CA= -0.382. Conclusions: Although the studied sample patient was small, we can conclude that the patients with Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder have an increased level of morning serum cortisol compared to healthy persons. In these patients there is an inverse correlation between the increased levels of morning cortisol and the frequency of use of the effective prosocial coping strategies, particularly the social joining type.