The article examines the legal fight against the illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the EU, particularly in the Black Sea. At international level the term was first mentioned in 1992, then in 2001 in the framework of FAO there was a broader definition adopted. The article pays attention to the EU secondary legislative acts, certification system and sanctions regime. The IUU fishing is a complex, multi-faceted and dynamic problem. Recent statistical data shows that the amount of money of the illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing is between 9 and 24 billion U.S. dollars per year. IUU fishing has serious biological, economic and social consequences. The author concludes that the fight against IUU fishing requires efforts of coastal States, efforts of regional organizations as well as efforts by the whole international community.
In accordance with the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Bulgaria, updated in 2018, the health of Bulgarian citizens is defined as a vital national interest. The analysis of the data on basic health-demographic indicators shows that our country is currently facing significant national security risks associated with a high level of total and premature mortality, high maternal and infant mortality, high level of disability and low life expectancy, as well as low indicators during the years of good health. The authors consider that improving the health of the nation is inextricably linked to the readiness of the national health system to respond and to provide adequate and continuous medical assistance of good quality. One of the major challenges for the contemporary globalized world is the rapid entering of information and communication technologies in healthcare. The article attempts to outline some of the legal and ethical issues that could arise when information and communication technologies are introduced into the healthcare system (e.g. the use of various applications for mobile devices, remote therapy and disease monitoring, etc.) from a point of view human rights doctrine and the protection of personal data.
The following article is dedicated to a new data protection regime in the European Union, in particular the Directive (EU) 2016/680 of the European Parliament and the Council on the protection of natural persons regarding processing of personal data by authorities aiming at prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of crime offences, including execution of criminal penalties. For this purpose, the authors look first at the data protection within the Prüm framework as well as at the relevant provisions of Lisbon Treaty. Тhe important cases of the European Court of Human Rights are analyzed. Whereas in 2014 EU Member states focused on the question whether or not to retain data, the 2016 conclusion was that in some aspects data retention is the most efficient measure to ensure national security, public safety and fighting across serious crimes. The terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels call to better equip security authorities. The EU legislature made significant progress on the Data Protection regime. The Directive (EU) 2016/680, the so called the ‘Police and Criminal Justice Directive’, repeals the Council Framework Decision 2008/977/JHA and will enter into force on 6 May 2018.
The following article is dedicated to the topic of human dignity - the human embryos and the legal framework they are regulated by in the EU: The Charter of Fundamental Rights of European Union and the EU Court practice. For the purpose, the authors look first and foremost at the EU Directive 98/44, regulating the legal protection of biotechnological inventions which aim at balancing the human beings' dignity and integrity with the need to preserve the social function of patents as a vector for the competiveness of the European biotech industry. Two key EU Court cases are analyzed, both of which reflecting the evolution of the Court of Justice on the European Union's Case Law on Stem Cell Patents, namely Case C-34/10 Oliver Brüstle v Greenpeace е. V. and Case C-364/13 International Stem Cell Corporation. The article looks then at the European Citizens’ Initiative “One of us”, which aims at securing Juridical protection of the dignity, the right to life, as well as to the integrity of every human being from conception in those areas of EU competence where such protection has a particular importance.
We are living in the so-called era of fake news in which cybercriminals have been delving into this phenomenon and turning it into a lucrative business. Fake and invented media websites are created to resemble legitimate media. Some criminals use methods such as modifying legitimate documents and distribute them as part of, for instance, disinformation campaigns. Propaganda is unequivocally bound to national security and it is a risk to it. Since fake news is a unique area where challenges appear to be very complicated, it should be dealt with via more and better usage of national security communications. It is, therefore, no coincidence that the Collins Dictionary has announced “fake news” as a word of 2017. Furthermore, the European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society Mariya Gabriel considers that fake news is suppressing the media and society as a whole, calling for an EU-level analysis in order to assess the amount to which fake news menaces the EU and pinpoint whether it is likely to find a common solution regarding this issue
The last decades present a significant development of the economic, social and cultural rights and specifically, the right to health. Until 2000, the right to health has not been interpreted officially. By providing international standards, General Comment No.14 on the right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health has led to wider agreement that the right to health includes the social determinants of health such as access to various conditions, services, goods or facilities that are crucial for its implementation. The Reports of the Special Rapporteur on the right to health within the UN human rights system have contributed to the process of gaining the greater clarity about the right to health. It is obvious that achieving the highest attainable level of health depends on the principle of progressive implementation and the availability of the necessary health resources. The possibility individual complaints to be considered by the Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights was introduced with the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, entered into force in 2013.