The different origin of alginite and soil organic matter may be the reason of differences in their humic acids (HA) chemical structure. One of the aims of this article is to compare the chemical composition of alginite HA and HA isolated from different soil types. Another aim of this article is to compare the chemical structure of humic acids of alginite isolated with two different procedures: modified IHSS (International Humic Substances Society) method and simplified extraction method. The modified IHSS method was applied for the isolation of alginite and soil HA. To obtain sufficient amount of alginate HA for biological experiments, simplified extraction method suited for large volumes of HA was applied. The differences in elemental analysis and ash proportion in HA extracted by modified IHSS method (C = 35.4, H = 43 atomic%, ash content = 0.08%) and simplified extraction method (C = 31, H = 31 atomic%, ash content = 7.42%) can be caused by different concentration of extraction solution and also differences in purification of HA. The differences in chemical structure between alginate HA and HA isolated from different soil types according to the data of elemental analysis (C content of alginite HA = 35.4 atomic%, C content in soils HA = 38.2‒49.1 atomic%) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra (degree of aromaticity of alginite HA = 24.4% and soil HA= 35.9‒53%) were found. Results of 13C NMR show that the content of aromatic carbon was decreasing in the following order: Haplic Chernozem HA > Andic Cambisol HA > Haplic Cambisol HA > alginite HA. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the differences in the chemical structure of alginite and soil HA can be explained by the difference in the origin of organic matter in alginite and soil samples. The source of organic matter in alginite is mainly type II kerogen from algae and that of soil is lignin and cellulose (type III kerogen) of higher plants.
The direction of changes and conversion of soil organic carbon (SOC) is in most current ecosystems influenced by human activity. Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute is responsible for monitoring the agricultural soils in a five-year cycle. One part of the soil monitoring involves the determination of the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. Further, we followed the conversion of arable land on grassland during more than 20 years of monitoring period at some locations where changes in land use occurred. Ten places on basic network and 2 places on key monitoring localities in which arable land have been converted into grassland were identified. About 50 percent of studied soils converted into permanent grassland were Cambisols. The other converted soil types were Luvic Stagnosol, Stagnic Regosol, Mollic Fluvisol, and Stagnic Luvisol. The results showed that after the third monitoring cycle (2002), increase of SOC was observed in all the localities, with the change in land use. Statistical parameter (t-test) confirmed significant differences between the set of average SOC values before and after the land use conversion. The chemical structure of humic acids (HA) isolated from arable soil and permanent grassland indicated increasing of aliphatic carbon content in grassland HA. More aromatic and stabile were HA isolated from arable soils.
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the basic parameters of soil productivity and quality. Generally soil has potential to sequestrate or release organic carbon depending on land use/management and climatic conditions. The main aim of this article is to show changes in SOC in agricultural land of Slovakia over almost the last 40 years on the basis of modelling data of SOC stock by the RothC model and unequal development of SOC stock on agro-climatic regions of Slovakia. The results received show that average SOC stock [t/ha] in Slovakia is higher on grasslands in comparison to arable land. However, total SOC pool (t) in top of 0.2 m of soil on the modelling area of agricultural Slovak land shows that a considerable part of SOC stock is located in arable land and is approximately four times greater than on grasslands because the arable land represents about 80% of the modelling area. In the first modelling period (1970-1994), the SOC stock gradually increased, but in the second modelling period (1995-2007) no significant changes in SOC stock on the arable land were observed. In the southwest part of Slovakia, increasing of SOC stock during all modelling periods was observed; however, in the northeast part a slight increase of SOC stock only in the first modelling period (1970-1994) was found and in the second modelling period (1995-2007) decrease of SOC accumulation was observed. The results of this statistical analysis show significant relationship between carbon input/SOC stock as independent variables and agro-climatic regions as dependent variable.
Current state and development of land degradation processes based on soil monitoring system in Slovakia is evaluated in this contribution. Soil monitoring system in Slovakia is consistently running since 1993 year in 5-years repetitions. Soil monitoring network in Slovakia is constructed using ecological principle, taking into account all main soil types and subtypes, soil organic matter, climatic regions, emission regions, polluted and non-polluted regions as well as various land use. The result of soil monitoring network is 318 sites on agricultural land in Slovakia. Soil properties are evaluated according to the main threats to soil relating to European Commission recommendation for European soil monitoring performance as follows: soil erosion and compaction, soil acidification, decline in soil organic matter and soil contamination. The most significant change has been determined in physical degradation of soils. The physical degradation was especially manifested in compacted and the eroded soils. It was determined that about 39% of agricultural land is potentially affected by soil erosion in Slovakia. In addition, slight decline in soil organic matter indicates the serious facts on evaluation and extension of soil degradation processes during the last period in Slovakia. Soil contamination is without significant change for the time being. It means the soils contaminated before soil monitoring process this unfavourable state lasts also at present.
Soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural land forms part of the global terrestrial carbon cycle and it affects atmospheric carbon dioxide balance. SOC is sensitive to local agricultural management practices that sum up into regional SOC storage dynamics. Understanding regional carbon emission and sequestration trends is, therefore, important in formulating and implementing climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In this study, the estimation of SOC stock and regional storage dynamics in the Ondavská Vrchovina region (North-Eastern Slovakia) cropland and grassland topsoil between 1970 and 2013 was performed with the RothC model and gridded spatial data on weather, initial SOC stock and historical land cover and land use changes. Initial SOC stock in the 0.3-m topsoil layer was estimated at 38.4 t ha−1 in 1970. The 2013 simulated value was 49.2 t ha−1, and the 1993–2013 simulated SOC stock values were within the measured data range. The total SOC storage in the study area, cropland and grassland areas, was 4.21 Mt in 1970 and 5.16 Mt in 2013, and this 0.95 Mt net SOC gain was attributed to inter-conversions of cropland and grassland areas between 1970 and 2013, which caused different organic carbon inputs to the soil during the simulation period with a strong effect on SOC stock temporal dynamics.