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Hernando Alvis-Miranda, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of mortality in developed countries. Cerebral parenchymal injury is evidenced by a significant percentage of patients. The most important structural lesion of the brain is the cerebral contusion, which is a complex and dynamic area, a result of the primary lesion and which is associated with ischemic and inflammatory phenomena that need to be known by the neurosurgeon. We present a review of the most important aspects of brain contusion.

Open access

Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

Abstract

Microglia are a special type of supporting cells in the nervous system. between the functions they perform are myelin production, structural support, regulation of extracellular fluid, glial scar formation among others. This cell type for its versatility, is also related to pathological events, where his multiple roles and the release of proinflammatory factors can contribute to understand especially in traumatic brain injury, as secondary injury and the healing process, important aspects the context of brain injury.

Open access

Hernando Alvis-Miranda, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

Abstract

Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Intracranial hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke, but has higher mortality and morbidity, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Various alterations, among these the endocrine were identified when an intracerebral hemorrhage, these stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries which are directly involved alterations of glucose, offers insight as cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic dysregulations alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

Open access

Willen Guillermo Calderon-Miranda, Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

Abstract

Clivus fractures are a rare pathology, frecuently associated tohigh power trauma. Such injuries may be associated with vascular and cranial nerves lesions. The abducens nerve is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injuries due to its long intracranial course, since their real origin until the lateral rectus muscle. The unilateral abducens nerve palsy of 1- 2-7% occurs in patients with cranial trauma, bilateral paralysis is rare. We report a patient who presented bilateral abducens nerve palsy associated with a clivus fracture

Open access

Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Andres M. Rubiano, Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda and Gabriel Alcala-Cerra

Abstract

Injury-induced seizures may appear clinically asymptomatic and can be easily monitored by the absence of trauma and post-ictal impairment of consciousness. Patients with epilepsy have a higher risk of compression fractures, leading to serious musculoskeletal injuries, this type of non-traumatic compression fractures of the spine secondary to seizures are rare lesions, and is produced by the severe contraction of the paraspinal muscles that can achieve the thoracic spine fracture. Seizures induced lesions may appear clinically asymptomatic and can be easily monitored by the absence of trauma and post-ictal impairment of consciousness. We present a case report.

Open access

Hernando Alvis-Miranda, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra, Sandra Milena Castellar-Leones, Hector Farid Escorcia and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

Abstract

A less frequent complications of shunt systems ventriculoperitoneal used for the management of hydrocephalus is the allergy materials which usually are built, silicone and latex. Patients undergoing multiple changes device may be at risk of developing high rejection to materials. Differential diagnosis should be done with infections and obstructions, usual causes of dysfunction. We present a review updated literature focused neurosurgeon.

Open access

Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra, Andres M. Rubiano, Omar Ramirez and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability in developed countries. It is a major cause of mortality in young patients worldwide. Intracranial hypertension is the cause of death in more than 80% of patients with TBI. When secondary lesions occur, start a number of mechanisms that increase the metabolic injury to brain tissue. Induction of hypothermia has been shown to alter the natural course of the disease process. The biological foundations suggest that hypothermia may have a potential benefit, although some publications have shown no improvement, it is clear that in a group of mostly young patients, early hypothermia may be beneficial. We present a practical review of the literature on this subject.

Open access

Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Andres M. Rubiano, Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda, Nasly Zabaleta-Churio, Willem Guillermo Calderón-Miranda, Gabriel Alcalá-Cerra and Jorge Aquino-Matus

Abstract

Background: Intracranial hemorrhagic complications are unusual after diagnostic lumbar puncture. Case report: A diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed in a 55 year-old male for acute bacterial meningitis workup. Immediately after the procedure he developed intense headache and a head Computed Tomography (CT) was done which identified an acute subdural fluid collection. No surgical management was offered and conservative medical follow-up was indicated. Conclusion: The occurrence of a headache with red flags after a lumbar puncture may suggest the possibility of an acute subdural hematoma.

Open access

Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda, Nancy Duarte-Valdivieso, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra, Willem Calderon-Miranda, Marco Zenteno, Angel Lee and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

Abstract

Venous Angiomas or Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) are extreme variations of normal transmedullary veins that are necessary for the drainage of white and gray matter, also are one type of cerebrovascular malformation (CVM), sharing category with capillary telangiectesias, cavernous malformations (CM), and arteriovenous malformations (AVM), each of which may also be associated with a DVA. DVA are the most commonly encountered CVM, accounting for up to 60% of all CVM. We present a review of the literatura

Open access

Luis Rafael Moscote Salazar, Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda, Amit Agrawal, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra, Williem Calderon-Miranda and Umamaheswara Reddy V.

Abstract

Cerebellar infarction is a challenge for the neurosurgeon. The rapid recognition will crucial to avoid devastating consequences. The massive cerebellar infarction has pseudotumoral behavior, should affect at least one third of the volume of the cerebellum. The irrigation of the cerebellum presents anatomical diversity, favoring the appearance of atypical infarcts. The neurosurgical management is critical for massive cerebellar infarction. We present a review of the literature.