Background and Purpose: Online activities are present in almost every aspect of people’s daily lives. Online purchases are also increasing each year and therefore it is important to investigate what influences online purchase intentions. Online purchase intentions are among everything else, influenced by the fear of identity theft and perceived risk. Design/Methodology/Approach: The online survey was conducted among 190 participants from Slovenia. The relations between the constructs of fear of financial losses, fear of reputational damage, perceived risk and online purchase intention were investigated. Results: The research showed that the relations between the constructs of fear of financial losses, fear of reputational damage, perceived risk are positive and the relation between the constructs of perceived risk and online purchase intention were negative. All of the relations were statistically significant. Conclusion: Understanding the impact of fear of identity theft and perceived risk on online purchase intention can be helpful for online sellers, because with these findings they can manage this fear and perceived risk to increase online purchase intention and address the risks accordingly. Online sellers should therefore regard new findings from the field of online sales. If an online store wants to have success in sales, they should consider all sides of customers’ desires as well as their restraints.
Tina Vrhovnik, Miha Marič, Jasmina Žnidaršič and Gašper Jordan
Background and Purpose: School leader has an effect on teachers in divergent ways. If school leader wants their teachers to be successful and satisfied, he or she must have the potential to prompt work conditions that build up teachers’ psychological empowerment. Main aim of our research was to empirically test the relations between teachers’ perceptions of school leaders’ empowering behaviours and all dimensions of psychological empowerment (meaning, competence, self-determination and impact). Design/Methodology/Approach: We tested four hypotheses in one structural model by using structural equation modelling (SEM). The quantitative data was collected through an online survey on a sample of 525 primary school teachers in Slovenia by using two already validated questionnaires, The School Leader Empowering Behaviours (SLEB) and Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire (PEQ). Results: Findings show that teachers’ perceptions of school leaders’ empowering behaviours are positively and statistically significantly related to all dimensions of psychological empowerment (meaning, competence, self-determination and impact). Conclusion: Knowledge of psychological empowerment can be beneficial for school leaders, because with this comprehension they can strengthen apprehension and potential in exercising empowering behaviours towards their teachers to maximize their psychological empowerment.
Gašper Jordan, Gozdana Miglič, Ivan Todorović and Miha Marič
Background and Purpose: Organizations should implement new findings from the field of human resource management. If an organization wants to have successful and effective employees, they should be satisfied with all aspects of work and at the same time they should be feel commitment towards an organization. To have a full insight in employees, organizations have to take care of psychological side of employees, which manifests in psychological empowerment.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The survey was conducted among 409 university lecturers in Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Serbia, and Slovenia. The investigated constructs of psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and organisational commitment were compared. Spreitzer’s PEQ was used for the assessment of the psychological empowerment, Spector’s JSS for job satisfaction, and Allen’s and Meyer’s OCQ for the assessment of organisational commitment.
Results: The research showed that the highest level of psychological empowerment can be found among university lecturers from Serbia and the lowest from Germany. Job satisfaction level is the highest in Austria and the lowest in Slovenia. Affective organisational commitment is the highest in Slovenia and the lowest in Germany. Continuance organisational commitment scored the highest in Croatia and the lowest in Czech Republic. Additionally, the outcomes show the highest level of normative organisational commitment in Czech Republic and the lowest in Austria. Only affective organisational commitment was not found as statistically significant.
Conclusion: Knowledge of psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment can be helpful for leaders, because with this knowledge they can manage, develop and motivate employees properly.