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Open access

G. Gergely, D. Koncz-Horváth, Z. Weltsch and Z. Gácsi

Abstract

This work represents an interesting development in the detection and interpretation of crack evolution in through hole technology (THT) solder joints, which based on the development of general and common method. Serial sectioning is a useful method because it overcomes the problems associated with traditional two-dimensional metallographic techniques by providing information about (micro)structures in three-dimensions.

In our work, serials sectioning with reconstruction method was utilized to visualize the 3D nature of cracks in through hole solder joint. Accurate quantitive analysis of the cracks, such as crack length, position and extension are presented with a help of the developed method: newly defined parameter and serial-cross sectioning method.

Open access

M. Móré, G. Diósi, P. Sipos and Z. Győri

Abstract

The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag) were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012). We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012) during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

Open access

D. Koncz-Horváth, G. Gergely and Z. Gácsi

Abstract

In this study, different types of whisker-like formations of Sn-3.0Ag based alloy were presented. In the experimental process the amount of Pb element was changed between 1000 and 2000 ppm, and the furnace atmosphere and cooling rate were also modified. The novelty of this work was that whisker-like formations in macro scale size were experienced after an exothermic reaction. The whiskers of larger sizes than general provided opportunities to investigate the microstructure and the concentration nearby the whiskers. In addition, the whisker-like formations from Sn-Ag based bulk material did not only consist of pure tin but tin and silver phases. The whisker-like growth appeared in several forms including hillock, spire and nodule shaped formations in accordance with parameters. It was observed that the compound phases were clustered in many cases mainly at hillocks.

Open access

D. Koncz-Horváth, G. Gergely and Z. Gácsi

Abstract

In lead-free reflow soldering, the presence of voids should be taken into account. For this reason, the effect of the applied heating profiles was examined via the characterization of voids in galvanic and immersion Sn coatings. According to EU Directive 2002/95/EC, the screening of Pb element of reflow soldering (i.e. of electrical and electronic equipment) is necessary; and the practical implementation of this measurement is largely affected by the characteristics of the solder (i.e. the presence of voids and the inhomogeneity of the solder). Comparing the results of the above two coating methods, it was found that by chemical coating more voids were formed and the detected lead content was higher than for galvanic Sn. The standard deviation of Ag and Cu concentrations was mainly influenced by the appearance of large compounds in the second case, while with chemical coating, no large compounds were formed due to the elevated number of voids.

Open access

H.B. Wen, T. Zeng and G.Z. Hu

Abstract

Laplace Transform is often used in solving the free vibration problems of structural beams. In existing research, there are two types of simplified models of continuous beam placement. The first is to regard the continuous beam as a single-span beam, the middle bearing of which is replaced by the bearing reaction force; the second is to divide the continuous beam into several simply supported beams, with the bending moment of the continuous beam at the middle bearing considered as the external force. Research shows that the second simplified model is incorrect, and the frequency equation derived from the first simplified model contains multiple expressions which might not be equivalent to each other. This paper specifies the application method of Laplace Transform in solving the free vibration problems of continuous beams, having great significance in the proper use of the transform method.

Open access

X. F. Yang, Z. Y. Jiang, Z. M. Tian, Y. Q. Qiu, L. Wang, K. G. Gao, Y. J. Hu and X. Y. Ma

Abstract

The uneven development of adipose tissues reflects a differential occurrence of biological events in vivo while the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, the in vivo inflammatory status of an inbred obese porcine model, Lantang pig, was assessed, aiming to provide evidence for obesity biology. Compared with genetically lean pigs (crossbred, Duroc × Landrace × Large White), Lantang pigs exhibited a larger amount of ultra large adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue accompanied with higher expression of macrophage/monocytes markers and pro-inflammatory genes (TLR4, CD14, CD11β, MCP1, TNFα, IL1β and IL6) and lower expression of cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, 2 and 3). Plasma concentrations of LPS and TNF-α were also higher in Lantang pigs than in lean pigs. Among adipose tissues of Lantang pigs, the subcutaneous tissue had the most abundant expression of inflammation related genes (TLR4, CD14, TNFα and IL6) and the lowest level of cellular antioxidant genes (SOD 1 and 2), while the perirenal adipose tissue had opposite profile. Significant activation of p38 MAPK pathway was indicated by increased phosphorylation of p38 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Lantang pigs. Collectively, the bacteria-derived LPS induced inflammation-associated oxidative stress indeed exists in adipose tissues of Lantang pig, and the differential expressions of inflammatory and antioxidant genes, to some extent, account for the uneven development of the adipose tissue within bodies.

Open access

L. Hu, X.Y. Lin, Z.X. Yang, X.P. Yao, G.L. Li, S.Z. Peng and Y. Wang

Abstract

In this assay, we developed and evaluated a multiplex PCR (mPCR) for its ability in detecting multiple infections of swine simultaneously. Four pairs of primers were used to detect five viruses. Specific primers were designed for classical swine fever virus (CSFV), African swine fever virus (ASFV) and pseudorabies (PRV). A pair of primers was designed prudently for two different types of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus that respectively were porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). The detection limits of the mPCR were 1.09×104, 1.50×103, 2.10×103, 1.30×103 and 8.97×102 copies/reaction for CSFV, ASFV, HP-PRRSV, PRRSV and PRV, respectively. A total of 49 clinical specimens were tested by the mPCR, and the result showed that co-infection by two or three viruses was 51%. In conclusion, the PCR is a useful tool for clinical diagnosis of not only single infections but also mixed infections in swines.

Open access

A. Simon, D. Lipusz, P. Baumli, P. Balint, G. Kaptay, G. Gergely, A. Sfikas, A. Lekatou, A. Karantzalis and Z. Gacsi

Abstract

The scope of the research work is the production and characterization of Al matrix composites reinforced with WC ceramic nanoparticles. The synthesis process was powder metallurgy. The produced composites were examined as far as their microstructure and mechanical properties (resistance to wear, micro/macrohardness). Intermetallic phases (Al12W and Al2Cu) were identified in the microstrucutre. Al4C3 was not detected in the composites. Adding more than 5 wt% WC to the aluminum, microhardness and wear resistance exceed the values of Al alloy. Composites having weak interface bond performed the highest wear rate.

Open access

I. Majić, A. Sarajlić, T. Lakatos, T. Tóth, E. Raspudić, V. Zebec, G. Kanižai Šarić, M. Kovačić and Ž. Laznik

Summary

A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes was conducted in Croatia between 2016 and 2017. The steinernematids were recovered in two out of 100 soil samples from agricultural land characterized as loamy soils with acidic reaction. Molecular and morphological identification was used to distinguish the nematodes. The isolates were identified as two different strains conspecific with Steinernema feltiae. The variations in morphometrical characteristics of infective juveniles (IJs) and males were observed among Croatian strains and with the original description. The analysis of ITS region revealed the greatest similarity of Croatian strains with Slovenian B30 and English A2 strains, which together comprised a monophyletic group in evolutionary analysis. This is the first record of steinernematids, namely S. feltiae in Croatia.