During the parasitological examination of wild rodents from Wroclaw vicinity 11 female nematodes were isolated from the harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). The helminths were determined as Syphacia vanderbrueli. This is the first report of this parasite in Poland. Complete descriptions of the female individuals are given.
Dirofilariosis belongs to zoonotic vector-borne diseases with fastest spread into new areas caused by extreme weather and seasonal changes in climate. In Slovakia, Dirofilaria spp. parasites affect more than 30 % of dogs living in endemic regions in southern parts of territory, however, data on wildlife circulation of this parasite are still scarce. In order to clarify the role of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as the most abundant canid species in Europe in maintaining the parasite in natural foci, an initial survey of dirofilariosis in this carnivore species was conducted in Slovakia. The samples of 183 red foxes hunted in 2007 - 2009 in regions of South-Eastern and Northern Slovakia with different geographical and climate characteristics were examined by means of PCR method using specific D. repens, D. immitis and Acantocheilonema recognitum primers. The DNA was isolated from spleen samples using commercial kit and PCR approach was used for diagnostics. After amplification selected products were purified and sequenced to elucidate any homologies with previously deposited sequences in Gen Bank. The results showed 105 out of 183 examined specimens (57.4 %) being infected, with great regional differences in prevalence. Phylogenetic relationships within Dirofilaria species indicate that obtained isolates belong to D. repens. The results confirmed the role of red foxes as the reservoir of parasite. Herein, epidemiological factors that may be coherent with the Dirofilaria parasites distribution and circulation in wildlife and implications in risk assessment and prevention for domestic animals and human are discussed.
So far, the identity of Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) nematodes collected from respiratory tracts of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes) and owls (Strigiformes) in Europe and North America is extremely inconsistent. Our results, based on analyses of ITS-2 sequences suggest that the Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) nematodes found in the birds of prey and owls from Central Europe and North America probably belong to the same species, C. (Hovorkonema) americana
. We are convinced, that described in recent literature high ITS-2 divergence among C. (Hovorkonema) nematodes collected from Europe, has occurred as a result of invalid synonimisation of some C. (Hovorkonema) species. In our opinion C. (Hovorkonema) americana (typically parasites of tracheae and air sacs of raptors) and C. (Hovorkonema) variegatum (Creplin, 1849) (typically parasites of tracheae of cranes and storks) are valid molecular and morphologically distinct species.
The study aimed to estimate the role of small rodents in the circulation of larval toxocarosis in light of their different habitats. From 2005 to 2008, a total of 1523 small rodents, belonging to 11 species, were captured in 5 different habitats of Slovakia. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in 6.6 % animals. The dominant reservoirs of toxocarosis were striped-field mouse Apodemus agrarius (11.7 %) and mound-building mouse Mus spicilegus (10.7 %), while the seropositivity of voles was low. Sexually active adults were infected more frequently (10.8%) in comparison with inactive ones (5.2 %). According to habitats, seroprevalence of toxocarosis in windbreaks (2.4 %) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in agrocoenoses (6.7 %), alluvia (8.5 %) and ecotones (7.5 %). Log-linear analysis performed in A. agrarius indicates that type of habitat and sexual activity affect the seropositivity to Toxocara infection. The highest seroprevalence was observed in alluvium (21.2 %) while the lowest in windbreak (1.8 %) (χ2 = 17.232, p < 0.001) and sexually active mice were characterised by 22.5 % and sexually inactive by 6.4 % seroprevalence (χ2 = 30.634, p < 0.001). The occurrence pattern of toxocarosis in small rodents suggests that they are permanent reservoirs for Toxocara spp. in nature and significant indicators of Toxocara egg contamination in environs.
Due to their specific biology and behaviour, rodents could play a role as an intermediate, definitive or paratenic host for many helminth species, as well as for species of zoonotic significance such as Toxocara spp. or Echinococcus multilocularis. The aim of our preliminary study was to investigate the nematode fauna of rodents collected from recreation grounds located in the vicinity of Wroclaw, and to determine their role in the transmission of toxocariasis in this area. During a one-year period, 90 individuals belonging to three rodent species, i.e. Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, were collected. The overall prevalence of infection with nematodes amounted to 63.33 ± 10.15 % and differed between hosts. Toxocara spp. larvae were located in livers and brains of A. agrarius (12.9 %). Our results indicate a role of rodents in the circulation of toxocariasis in sub-urban areas, which serve as recreation grounds for the city of Wroclaw.